Soils An Introduction

ISBN-10: 0131190199
ISBN-13: 9780131190191
Edition: 6th 2006 (Revised)
List price: $155.00 Buy it from $89.07
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Description: Now in paperback, this book provides a fresh look at soil science. The goal is to help readers understand the parts that contribute to the whole soil individual and then appreciate how those parts function together. It begins by assembling the parts  More...

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Book details

List price: $155.00
Edition: 6th
Copyright year: 2006
Publisher: Prentice Hall PTR
Publication date: 6/22/2005
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 464
Size: 8.00" wide x 9.75" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 2.816
Language: English

Now in paperback, this book provides a fresh look at soil science. The goal is to help readers understand the parts that contribute to the whole soil individual and then appreciate how those parts function together. It begins by assembling the parts (solid, liquid and gas phases) of a soil, followed by explaining the interactions among the parts. Subsequently, genesis, classification, and interpretation of soil properties are explained. The "building the pedon" concept introduced in the first edition is continued in this latest edition. This edition also has a "western" perspective that emphasizes water management. For individuals whose careers involve environmental or land use management such as soil scientists, soil conservationists, forest soil scientists, environmental scientists, or geologists.

Preface
Introduction
Soil
Soil and Sustainability
What Is Soil?
How Do Soils Form?
Minerals and Organic Matter
Size and Organization of Particles
Soil Pores
Surface Reactions and Transfer Processes
Soil as an Ecosystem
Soil Morphology
Soil Formation
Soil Classification
Soil Taxonomy
Soil Series
Soil Management
Summary
Questions
Solids and Pores
Particle Sizes
The Coarse Fraction
The Fine-Earth Fraction
Soil Texture
Particle Size Analysis
Particle Arrangement
Aggregate Shape
The Revelance of Soil Texture, Structure and Depth
Aggregate Size
Aggregate Grade
Mode of Formation
Soil Minerals
General Properties
Silicate Minerals of Sand and Silt
Minerals of the Clay Fraction
Common Use of Clay Minerals
Soil Organic Matter and Humus
Coarse Organic Materials
Colloidal Fraction
Soil Color and Consistence
Pores
Summary
Questions
Further Reading
Web Resources
Additional Particle Size Classifications and Methods to Display Data
Stokes' Law
Mineral Formulas and Structures
Charge in lons
Liquids and Gases
Soil Air
Composition
Air Movement
Air-Water Relationships
Porosity
Bulk Density and Void Ratio
Soil Water
Characteristics of Water
Soil Density
Pore Water Composition
Soil Water Amounts
Solid-Liquid Interactions
Ion Exchange
Specific Adsorption Reactions
Weak Sorption Reactions
Organic Chemicals and Their Adsorption
Nonpolar Substances
Polar Nonionic Substances
Adsorption Isotherms
Pore Retention
Summary
Questions
Further Reading
Measuring CEC
Example CEC Calculations
pH
Partial Pressure and Gas Solubility
Measuring Bulk Density
Organic Electrolytes
Soil Climate
Sunshine: Irradiation and Heating
Radiant Energy
Radiant Heating and Heat Dissipation
Movement of Heat through Soil and Other Media
Conduction (Diffusive Transfer)
Consequences of Exchanges Between the Air and Ground Surface
Heat Capacity, Conductivity, and Temperature Gradients
Turbulence and Heat Flow in Air and Water
Principles in Action: Controlling Soil Climates
Summary of Principles
Seasonal and Geographic Variations in Soil Climate
Management of Soil Temperature
Summary
Questions
Further Reading
Forms of Radiation
Movement of Heat, Water, Gases, and Solutes
Water in the Soil-Plant System
Water Storage in Soil
Water Retention and Capacity
Water Content and Water Potential
Modes of Water Movement
Vapor Flow and Liquid Flow
Saturated and Unsaturated Liquid Flow in Soil
Water Flow in Stratified Soils
Preferential Flow
Principles of Water Movement
Forces That Move Water
Water Potential and Water Movement
Pollutant Transport in Soils
Factors Affecting Water Potentials
Potential Differences and Gradients
Constraints to Water Movement
Conductivity in Soil
Conductivity in Soil-Plant Systems
Water Stress in Plants
Evapotranspiration
Factors Controlling Evaporation and Transpiration
Measurement of Water Use
Water Movement and Environment
Summary
Questions
Further Reading
Capillarity
Managing Soil Water
Water Management Concepts
Nonirrigated Land
Irrigated Agriculture
Water Extraction and Infiltration Patterns
Extraction by Plants
Infiltration
Irrigation Methods
Flood and Furrow Irrigation
Sprinkler and Drip Irrigation
Drainage
Water Use Efficiency
Biomass-Transpiration Ratio
Biomass-Evapotranspiration Ratio
Growth per Unit of Water Applied (or Available)
Land and Water Management
Yield Efficiency and Economic Efficiency
Summary
Questions
Further Reading
Soil Organisms
Soil Communities
Kinds of Organisms in Soil
Proliferation, Spread, and Survival
Requirements and Adaptations of Microbes
Large Organisms
Plants and Their Roots
Soil Animals
Soil Microorganisms
Protozoa and Algae
Nematodes
Fungi
Bacteria (Monera)
Viruses
Constraints and Adaptations
Physical Constraints
Acidity, Salinity, and Other Chemical Inhibitors
Nutritional Constraints: Nitrogen
Nutritional Constraints: Energy and Carbon
Associations of Microorganisms with Plants
Rhizosphere Organisms
Root Pathogens and Parasites
Symbioses between Plants and Soil Microorganisms
Summary
Questions
Environmental Bugs
Further Reading
Web Resources
Rhizobium-Legume Symbioses
Mycorrhizae
Nutritional Adaptations
Miorobial Processes
Decomposition of Organic Matter
General Process of Organic-Matter Decay
Carbon Dioxide Production and Oxygen Consumption
Humus Formation
Release and Immobilization of N and Other Nutrients
Decay Rates and Controlling Factors
Managing Soil Organic Matter
Carbon Sequestration
Oxidation of Ammonium, Sulfur, Iron, and Manganese
Processes
Requirements and Consequences
Anoxic Processes
Depletion of Oxygen: Reducing Conditions
Flooded Soils
Carbon and Nitrogen Cycles
Carbon Cycling in the Soil-Plant System
Nitrogen Cycling in the Soil-Plant System
Nitrogen Cycling and Soil Fertility
The Work of Microbes
Biodegradation of Chemicals in Soil
Biodegradation, Sorption, and Diffusion
Bioremediation
Summary
Questions
Further Reading
Biological Compounds
Oxidation and Reduction
Mineral Nutrients in Soils and Plants
Nutrient Elements in Plants
Elemental Composition of Plants
Forms and Functions of Nutrients in Plants
Uptake and Movement of Nutrients within Plants
Retention and Release of Nutrients in Soil
Soil Solution and Solid Nutrient Reserves
Release Processes
Movement of Ions to Roots
Significance and Processes
Nutrient Transport Rates
Nutrient Mobility in Soil
Root Growth and Development
Characteristics and Functions of Root Systems
Factors Affecting Root Development
Nutrient Availability and Deficiency
Nutrients, Fertilizers, and Sustainable Land Use
Summary
Questions
Further Reading
Nutrient Elements in Plants
Nutrient Reserves and Release in Soil
Nutrient Availability and Soil pH
Managing Plant Nutrients
Fertilizers
Common Fertilizer Materials
Comparisons and Choices
Determining Fertilizer Needs: Deficiency Diagnosis
Kinds of Diagnoses
Nutrient Response Summary
Questions
Experiments with Plants
Supplemental Diagnostic Procedures
Fertilizer Efficiency and Nutrient Conservation
Methods and Timing of Fertilizer Application
Nutrient Cycling and the Control of Losses
Farming by Soil
Improving Nutrient Efficiency of Plants
Nutrients Efficiency, Energy Conservation and Soil Conservation
Summary
Questions
Further Reading
Web Resources
Fertilizers: Specifications and Calculations
Acidity and Salinity
Acidity and Related Problems
Nature and Causes
Effects of Acidity, Al, and Mn
Management of Soil Acidity
Salinity and Related Problems
Nature and Causes
Effects of Salinity, Sodicity, and Alkalinity
Management of Saline and Sodic Soils
Acid Precipitation
Summary
Questions
Further Reading
Acids, Bases, and Exchangeable Bases
Aluminum and Manganese Reactions
Acidifying and Alkalinizing Reactions
pH Buffering and Lime Requirements
Diagnostic Tests
Salt, Cations, and Colloid Dispersion
Acid Precipitation in Cool, Humid Forests
Soil Genesis
Factors of Soil Formation
Parent Material
Soil Stability, Nuclear Plants, and Sustainable Agriculture
Climate
Dust
Topography
Biota
Time
People as Soil Formers
A Soil Formation Equation
Soil-Forming Factors: Some Interactions
Wetlands
Processes of Soil Formation
Physical Weathering
Chemical Weathering
Translocation
Clay Formation
Products
Mineral Soils
Organic Soils
Hydric Soils
Summary
Questions
Further Reading
Acidification
Solution
Clay Formation
Soil Information
Kinds of Soil Information
Geographic Data
Point Data
Soil Variability
Collecting and Displaying Information
Making a Soil Map
Remote Sensing
Geographic Data Handling
Summary
Questions
Soil Survey as Resource Base
Further Reading
Web Resources
Section-Range System
Orders of the Soil Survey
Organizing Soils Information
Natural Systems
Why Organize Information?
Kinds of Organization
Soil Taxonomy
Sustainable Agriculture
Other Systems
Interpretive Systems
USDA Land Capability Classification
Appropriate Land Use
Timber and Range Site Indices
Special-Purpose Groupings
Summary
Questions
Further Reading
Web Resources
Suborders: An Example
The Canadian and WRB Soil Classification Systems
The Storie Index System
Soil Degradation
Soil Erosion
Water Erosion
Air and Water Quality
Wind Erosion
Gravity Erosion (Mass Wasting)
Physical Degradation
Surface Crusts and Seals
Compaction
Chemical Degradation
Nature of the Problem
Contaminant Interactions with Soil
Treating Contaminated Soils
The MTBE Story
Degradation Control
Erosion Control
Control of Physical Degradation
Special Problems
Desertification
Organic Soil Degradation
Summary
Questions
Further Reading
Web Resources
Nonagricultural Uses of Sils
Waste Disposal on Soils
On-Site Disposal
Off-Site Disposal
Waste Disposal
Engineering Properties
Soil Strength
Atterberg Limits
Shrink-Swell
Recreation and Construction
Recreational Facilities
Construction
Reclaimed and Artificial Soils
Polders
Mine Soils
Turf and Golf Greens
Horticultural Mixes
Urban Soils
Summary
Questions
Further Reading
Web Resources
Perc Test
Suitability Criteria for Recreation

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