Critical Thinking Tools for Taking Charge of Your Learning and Your Life

ISBN-10: 0131149628
ISBN-13: 9780131149625
Edition: 2nd 2006
List price: $67.20 Buy it from $3.94
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Description: Like its parent text, Critical Thinking: Tools for Taking Charge of Your Learning and Your Life, Second Edition, this book focuses on an integrated, universal concept of critical thinking that is both substantive and practical; it provides readers  More...

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Book details

List price: $67.20
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2006
Publisher: Prentice Hall PTR
Publication date: 7/28/2005
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 544
Size: 7.75" wide x 9.25" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.892
Language: English

Like its parent text, Critical Thinking: Tools for Taking Charge of Your Learning and Your Life, Second Edition, this book focuses on an integrated, universal concept of critical thinking that is both substantive and practical; it provides readers with the basic intellectual skills they need to think through content in any class, subject, or discipline, and through any problems or issues they face.

Dr. Richard W. Paul is Director of Research and Professional Development at the Center for Critical Thinking and Chair of the National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking. Dr. Paul is an internationally recognized authority on critical thinking, with eight books and over 200 articles on the subject. Dr. Paul has given lectures on critical thinking at many universities in both the United States and abroad, including Harvard, the University of Chicago, the University of Illinois, and the universities of Puerto Rico, Costa Rica, British Columbia, Toronto, and Amsterdam. He taught beginning and advanced courses in critical thinking at the university level for over 20 years. He has been the recipient of numerous honors and awards, including Distinguished Philosopher (by the Council for Philosophical Studies, 1987), O.C. Tanner Lecturer in Humanities (by Utah State University, 1986), Lansdown Visiting Scholar (by the University of Victoria, 1987), and the Alfred Korsybski Memorial Lecturer (by the Institute for General Semantics, 1987).Dr. Linda Elder is an educational psychologist and a prominent authority on critical thinking. She is President of the Foundation for Critical Thinking and Executive Director of the Center for Critical Thinking. Dr. Elder has taught psychology and critical thinking at the college level and has given presentations to more than 20,000 educators at all levels. She has co-authored four books, including Critical Thinking: Tools for Taking Charge of Your Learning and Your Life, Critical Thinking: Tools for Taking Charge of Your Professional and Personal Life and Twenty-Five Days to Better Thinking and Better Living. She has co-authored twenty thinker's guides on critical thinking and co-authors a quarterly column on critical thinking in the Journal of Developmental Education. Dr. Elder has also developed an original stage theory of critical thinking development. Concerned with understanding and illuminating the relationship between thinking and affect, and the barriers to critical thinking, Dr. Elder has placed these issues at the center of her thinking and her work.

Preface
Introduction
A Start-up Definition of Critical Thinking
How Skilled Are You as a Thinker?
Good Thinking Requires Hard Work
Defining Critical Thinking
The Concept of Critical Thinking
Become a Critic of Your Thinking
Establish New Habits of Thought
Develop Confidence in Your Ability to Reason and Figure Things Out
How the Mind Can Discover Itself
Recognize the Mind's Three Basic Functions
Establish a Special Relationship to Your Mind
Connect Academic Subjects to Your Life
Learn Both Intellectually and Emotionally
Discover the Parts of Thinking
Thinking Is Everywhere in Human Life
The Parts of Thinking
A First Look at the Elements of Thought
An Everyday Example: Jack and Jill
Analysis of the Example
How the Parts of Thinking Fit Together
The Relationship Between the Elements
The Elements of Thought
The Best Thinkers Think to Some Purpose
The Best Thinkers Take Command of Concepts
The Best Thinkers Assess Information
The Best Thinkers Distinguish Between Inferences and Assumptions
The Best Thinkers Think Through Implications
The Best Thinkers Think Across Points of View
Conclusion
Discover Universal Standards for Thinking
Take a Deeper Look at Universal Intellectual Standards
Clarity
Accuracy
Precision
Relevance
Depth
Breadth
Logic
Significance
Fairness
Bring Together the Elements of Reasoning and the Intellectual Standards
Purpose, Goal, or End in View
Question at Issue or Problem to Be Solved
Point of View or Frame of Reference
Information, Data, Experiences
Concepts, Theories, Ideas
Assumptions
Implications and Consequences
Inferences
Brief Guidelines for Using Intellectual Standards
Redefine Grades As Levels of Thinking and Learning
Develop Strategies for Self-Assessment
Use Student Profiles to Assess Your Performance
Exemplary Students (Grade of A)
High-Performing Students (Grade of B)
Mixed-Quality Students (Grade of C)
Low-Performing Students (Grade of D or F)
Apply the Student Profiles to Assess Your Performance Within Specific Disciplines
Exemplary Thinking as a Student of Psychology (Grade of A)
High-Performing Thinking as a Student of Psychology (Grade of B)
Mixed-Quality Thinking as a Student of Psychology (Grade of C)
Low-Performing Thinking as a Student of Psychology (Grade of D or F)
Conclusion
Learn to Ask the Questions the Best Thinkers Ask
The Importance of Questions in Thinking
Questioning Your Questions
Dead Questions Reflect Inert Minds
Three Categories of Questions
Questions of Fact
Questions of Preference
Questions of Judgment
Become a Socratic Questioner
Focus Your Thinking on the Type of Question Being Asked
Focus Your Questions on Universal Intellectual Standards for Thought
Focus Your Questions on the Elements of Thought
Focus Your Questions on Prior Questions
Focus Your Questions on Domains of Thinking
Conclusion
Discover How the Best Thinkers Learn
18 Ideas for Improving Your Learning
The Logic of a College as It Is
How the Best Students Learn
The Design of a College Class
Figure Out the Underlying Concept of Your Course
Figure Out the Form of Thinking Essential to a Course or Subject
Think Within the Logic of the Subject
A Case: The Logic of Biochemistry
Make the Design of the Course Work for You
Sample Course: American History, 1600-1800
Reading, Writing, Speaking, Listening, and Thinking
Figure Out the Logic of an Article or Essay
Figure Out the Logic of a Textbook
Criteria for Evaluating an Author's Reasoning
The Best Thinkers Read Closely and Write Substantively
The Interrelationship Between Reading and Writing
Discover Close Reading
Consider the Author's Purpose
Avoid Impressionistic Reading
Read Reflectively
Think About Reading While Reading
Engage the Text While Reading
Think of Books as Teachers
Reading Minds
The Work of Reading
Structural Reading
How to Read a Sentence
How to Read a Paragraph
How to Read a Textbook
How to Read an Editorial
Take Ownership of What You Read: Mark It Up
The Best Readers Read to Learn
Discover Substantive Writing
Write for a Purpose
Substantive Writing
The Problem of Impressionistic Writing
Write Reflectively
How to Write a Sentence
Write to Learn
Substantive Writing in Content Areas
Relate Core Ideas to Other Core Ideas
Writing Within Disciplines
The Work of Writing
Nonsubstantive Writing
Practice Close Reading and Substantive Writing
Paraphrasing
Exercises in the Five Levels of Close Reading and Substantive Writing
Exploring Conflicting Ideas
Exploring Key Ideas Within Disciplines
Analyzing Reasoning
Writing Substantively to Analyze Reasoning: An Example
Evaluating Reasoning
Become a Fair-Minded Thinker
Weak Versus Strong Critical Thinking
What Does Fair-Mindedness Require?
Intellectual Humility: The Best Thinkers Strive to Discover the Extent of Their Ignorance
Intellectual Courage: The Best Thinkers Have the Courage to Challenge Popular Beliefs
Intellectual Empathy: The Best Thinkers Empathically Enter Opposing Views
Intellectual Integrity: The Best Thinkers Hold Themselves to the Same Standards to Which They Hold Others
Intellectual Perseverance: The Best Thinkers Do Not Give Up Easily, But Work Their Way Through Complexities and Frustration
Confidence in Reason: The Best Thinkers Respect Evidence and Reasoning and Value Them as Tools for Discovering the Truth
Intellectual Autonomy: The Best Thinkers Value Their Independence in Thought
The Best Thinkers Recognize the Interdependence of Intellectual Virtues
Conclusion
Deal with Your Irrational Mind
The Best Thinkers Take Charge of Their Egocentric Nature
Understand Egocentric Thinking
Understand Egocentrism as a Mind Within the Mind
Successful Egocentric Thinking
Unsuccessful Egocentric Thinking
Rational Thinking
Two Egocentric Functions
Pathological Tendencies of the Human Mind
The Best Thinkers Challenge the Pathological Tendencies of Their Minds
The Challenge of Rationality
The Best Thinkers Take Charge of Their Sociocentric Tendencies
The Nature of Sociocentrism
Social Stratification
Sociocentric Thinking Is Unconscious and Potentially Dangerous
Sociocentric Uses of Language
Disclose Sociocentric Thinking Through Conceptual Analysis
Reveal Ideology at Work Through Conceptual Analysis
The Mass Media Foster Sociocentric Thinking
Conclusion
The Stages of Critical Thinking Development: At What Stage are You?
The Unreflective Thinker
The Challenged Thinker
The Beginning Thinker
The Practicing Thinker
A "Game Plan" for Improvement
A Game Plan for Devising a Game Plan
Integrating Strategies One By One
Appendices
Further Exercises in Close Reading and Substantive Writing
Sample Analysis of the Logic of...
What Do We Mean by "The Best Thinkers"?
Glossary
References

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