Hartmann's Plant Science Growth, Development, and Utilization of Cultivated Plants

ISBN-10: 0131140752
ISBN-13: 9780131140752
Edition: 4th 2007 (Revised)
List price: $135.40
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Description: Written by some of the most respected innovators in the field, this comprehensive text takes an in-depth look at the environmental, cultural and social factors that influence how plants are grown and used worldwide. The newest edition cites the most  More...

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Book details

List price: $135.40
Edition: 4th
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: Prentice Hall PTR
Publication date: 2/10/2006
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 624
Size: 8.50" wide x 11.50" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 3.542
Language: English

Written by some of the most respected innovators in the field, this comprehensive text takes an in-depth look at the environmental, cultural and social factors that influence how plants are grown and used worldwide. The newest edition cites the most recent statistics, production methods and issues concerning the production and utilization of plants. It offers several web-based resources including a free companion website with practice questions andonline crop fact sheets that give information at a local level. Along with information on climate and environment, it also explores plantsrsquo; tremendous economic impact in both developed and developing nations.nbsp;Introduces the basics of plant science including the ecosystem; climate; managing soil, water and fertility; and pest management. nbsp;Examines plant structure, chemistry, growth and development; genetics and biodiversity and their relationship to crop growing and utilization systems. Covers multiple crop types and growth settings including nursery, landscape and greenhouse. Also discusses how crops are preserved, transported and marketed.For anyone interested in how plants are cultivated and utilized. nbsp; nbsp;

Environmental, Cultural, and Social Factors That Influence the Cultivation and Utilization of Plants
History, Trends, Issues, and Challenges in Plant Science
Key Learning Concepts
History
Trends and Issues Affecting Plant Science
Background
Domestic Trends and Issues
Global Trends and Issues
Research
Benefits from Cultivated Plants
Wood and Wood Products from Timber Trees
Textiles from Fiber-Producing Crops
Drugs and Medicines
Plants for Ornamental and Recreational Purposes
Meeting the Challenges in Plant Science
Change Through Scientific Inquiry
Hypothesis
Experiments
Data Interpretation
Summary and Review
Food for Thought
Supplementary Reading
Terrestrial Ecosystems
Key Learning Concepts
Ecosystem Components
The Biomes
Productivity of Terrestrial Ecosystems
Succession
Summary and Review
Food for Thought
Supplementary Reading
Human Impact on Ecosystems
Key Learning Concepts
Introduction
Human Footprint
Plants for Human Use
Nutrition
Forage, Fiber, and Fuel
Ornamental and Recreational Uses
Summary and Review
Food for Thought
Supplementary Reading
Climate-Solar Radiation and Moisture Availability
Key Learning Concepts
Climate
Solar Radiation
Artificial Light
Moisture Availability
Summary and Review
Food for Thought
Supplementary Reading
Climate-Temperature, Air Movement, and Composition
Key Learning Concepts
Temperature
Air Movement and Composition
Atmospheric Composition
Summary and Review
Food for Thought
Supplementary Reading
Soil and Managing Soil, Soil Water, and Fertility
Key Learning Concepts
Definition of Soil
Kinds of Rocks
Factors Involved in Soil Formation
Parent Material
Climate
Biology
Topography
Time
Physical Properties of Soil
Soil Texture
Soil Structure
Chemical Properties of Soil
Effect of Climate
Cation Exchange Capacity
Soil Acidity and Alkalinity
Saline and Sodic Soils
Soil Organisms
Soil Organic Matter
Carbon: Nitrogen Ratio
Soil Degradation
Soil Improvement
Land Preparation
Plowing
Disking
Harrowing
Listing and Ridging
Cultivation
Deep Tillage
Conservation Tillage Systems
Land Leveling
Soil Fumigation
Artificial Soils
Soil Conservation
Extent of Erosion
Factors Affecting Erosion
Methods of Conservation
Wind Erosion
Water Management
Water Quality
Saline Water and Salinity
Permeability
Toxicity
Other Related Problems
Irrigation
Methods of Application
Fertility Management
Primary Nutrients
Secondary Nutrients
Micronutrients
Chelating Agents
Summary and Review
Food for Thought
Supplementary Reading
Integrated Management of Weeds, Insects, and Diseases
Key Learning Concepts
Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
Genetic Host Resistance
Cultural Practices
Chemical Applications
Biological Control
Government Regulatory Measures
Weeds
Weed Biology and Ecology
Classification
Competition
Reproduction
Genetics
Ecology
Weed Management
Preventive Weed Control
Mechanical Weed Control
Cultural Weed Control
Biological Weed Control
Weed Control in Organic Crop Production Systems
Chemical Weed Control
Insects and Mites
Insects and Their Relatives
Insect and Mite Pest Management
Insecticides Classified by Chemistry
Important Insect Pests of Agricultural Crops and Plant Products
Rodents and Vertebrate Wildlife
Plant Diseases
Disease Signs and Symptoms
Classification of Infectious Plant Diseases
Practical Tips for Diagnosing Plant Diseases
The Safe Use of Agricultural Chemicals-Herbicides, Insecticides, Fungicides, Miticides, and Nematicides
Pesticide Effects on the Environment
Effects on Wildlife
Summary and Review
Food for Thought
Supplemental Reading
Plant Structure, Chemistry, Growth and Development, Genetics, and Biodiversity
Structure of Higher Plants
Key Learning Concepts
The Life Cycle of a Corn Plant (A Monocot)
The Life Cycle of a Bean Plant (A Dicot)
The Cell
Cell Structure
The Protoplast
The Cell Wall
Plant Tissues
Meristematic Tissues
Permanent Tissues
The Plant Body
Roots
The Procambium Layer
Stems
Stem Forms
Leaves
Buds
Flowers
Fruits
Seeds
Summary and Review
Food for Thought
Supplementary Reading
Stages of Growth and Development
Key Learning Concepts
Vegetative Growth and Development
Shoot and Root Systems
Definitions and Measurements
Shoot Growth Patterns: Annuals, Biennials, and Perennials
Root Growth Patterns
How the Plant Grows
Phase Change: Juvenility, Maturaition, Senescence
Reproductive Growth and Development
Flower Induction and Initiation
Flower Development
Pollination
Fertilization
Fruit Setting
Fruit Growth and Development
Plant Growth Regulators
Auxins
Gibberellins (GAs)
Cytokinins
Ethylene
Abscisic Acid (ABA)
Additional Hormones or Hormone Classes
Synthetic Growth Retardants
Summary and Review
Food for Thought
Supplementary Reading
Plant Chemistry and Metabolism
Key Learning Concepts
Introduction
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleosides, Nucleotides, and Nucleic Acids
Secondary Products
Alkaloids
Phenolics
Terpenoids
Summary and Review
Food for Thought
Supplementary Reading
Photosynthesis and Respiration
Key Learning Concepts
Introduction
Photosynthesis: Light Energy to Reducing Power
Photosynthesis: Carbon Dioxide to Carbohydrate
Factors Affecting the Rate of Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
Light Quality
Light Intensity
Carbon Dioxide
Heat
Water
Different Photosynthetic Mechanisms
Plant Development and the Source-Sink Relationship
Respiration
Summary and Review
Food for Thought
Supplementary Reading
Soil and Plant Water Relations
Key Learning Concepts
Water
Uses in Plants
Characteristics
Soil Water
Availability
Water Movement and Retention in Soil
Plant Water
Absorption and Conduction of Water
Absorption and Transport of Mineral Nutrients
Translocation of Sugars
Summary and Review
Food for Thought
Supplementary Reading
Plant Nutrients
Key Learning Concepts
How Do Plants Absorb Nutrients from the Soil?
Elements That Plants Need for Growth and Reproduction
Nitrogen
Phosphorus
Potassium, Calcium, and Magnesium
Minor Elements
Nutrient Deficiencies
Remobilization
Summary and Review
Food for Thought
Supplementary Reading
Genetics and Propagation
Key Learning Concepts
Basic Genetic Concepts in Plant Science
Chromosomes
Genes
Homologous Chromosomes
Mitosis
Meiosis and Fertilization
Mutations
Polyploidy
Cytoplasmic Inheritance
Genotype and Phenotype
Propagation of Plants
Sexual Propagation
Seed Production
Seed Formation
Seed Storage and Viability Testing
Seed Dormancy
Seed Germination
Vegetative Propagation
Apomixis
Disease Problems in Clones
Propagation by Cuttings
Propagation by Grafting and Budding
Effect of Rootstock on Growth and Development of the Scion Cultivar
Layering
Other Plant Structures Providing Natural Propagation Methods
Propagation Using Specialized Stems and Roots
Micropropagation (Tissue Culture)
Biotechnology
Summary and Review
Food for Thought
Supplementary Reading
Crop Biodiversity: Naming, Classifying, Origin, and Germplasm Preservation
Key Learning Concepts
Climatic and Related Classifications
Common and Botanical Names
Development of Botanical Classifications
Scientific Classification
Plant Identification and Nomenclature
Subspecific Categories
Botanical Variety
Cultivar
Group
Family
Plant Identification Key
Origin of Cultivated Plants
Domestication of Plants
Methods of Plant Domestication
Vegetative or Asexual Propagation Methods
Seed or Sexual Propagation Methods
Examples of Improvement in Some Important Crop Plants
Grains and Vegetable Crops
Fruit Crops
Plant Improvement Programs
Evolution and Darwinism
Searching for and Maintaining New Germplasm
International Conventions Relating to Plant Genetic Resources, Conservation, and Utilization
Preservation of Desirable Germplasm
Broadening the Base of Agricultural Production
Summary and Review
Food for Thought
Supplementary Reading
Crops: Their Production and Utilization Systems
Field Crops Grown for Food, Fiber, Fuel, and Other Industrial Uses
Key Learning Concepts
Introduction
Tillage
Cropping Sequences
Variety Selection
Planting and Crop Establishment
Planting Date
Plant Population and Seeding Rate
Plant Spacing Configuration
Seeding Depth
Water Management: Irrigation and Drainage
Crop Nutrition
Pest Management
Weed Control
Insect Control
Disease Control
Harvest and Storage
Field Crops Grown for Food, Forage, Fiber, and Industrial Uses
Food Crops
Oil Crops
Fiber Crops
Summary and Review
Food for Thought
Supplementary Reading
Forage Crops and Rangelands
Key Learning Concepts
Utilization of Forage Crops
Forages in Confinement Systems
Grazing
Conserved Forage
Integrated Systems (Crop Rotations with Cereals, Hay, or Livestock)
Forage Quality
Establishment
Plant Diversity in Grasslands
Symbiosis with Microorganisms
Grassland Ecology
Plant Dispersal and Propagation
Sward Growth Dynamics
Balance Between Species
Nutrient Balances
Other Uses of Grasslands
Summary and Review
Food for Thought
Supplementary Reading
Vegetable Production
Key Learning Concepts
Principles of Vegetable Production
The Importance of Vegetable Production
Overview of Vegetable Farms and Industries
Characteristics of Vegetable Farming and Gardening Systems
Markets for Commercially Grown Vegetables
Steps in Vegetable Production
Site Selection
Site Preparation
Variety Selection
Planting
Management During Crop Growth and Development
Harvest
Packaging and Post-Harvest Management
Record Keeping and Maintenance and Repair of Facilities and Equipment
Continuing Education
Vegetable Crops Grown for Fruits and Seeds
Vegetable Crops Grown for Flowers, Leaves, or Stems
Vegetable Crops Grown for Underground Parts
Summary and Review
Food for Thought
Supplementary Reading
Temperate Fruit and Nut Crops
Key Learning Concepts
Site Selection
Climate
Land and Soil Characteristics
Irrigation Water: Quality and Availability
Market Availability and Marketing Strategies
Costs in Establishing and Maintaining a Fruit or Nut Planting
Understanding the Flowering and Fruiting Process
Flower Initiation
Rest and Chilling Requirements
Location of Fruit Buds and Fruiting Structures
Pollination and Pollenizers
Insects and Pollination
Choosing a Growing System
Selecting Fruiting Cultivars and Rootstocks
Activities Prior to Planting
Planting and Culture
Laying Out the Planting
Planting the Crop
An Introduction to the Care and Maintenance of a Fruit Planting
Training and Pruning
Reasons for Training and Pruning
Physiological Responses to Pruning
Training and Pruning Deciduous Fruit Trees
Training and Pruning Grapevines
Training and Pruning Cane Fruits
Training and Pruning Bush Fruits
Fruit Thinning
Thinning Requirements
Chemical Thinning
Mechanical Thinning
Fruit Maturation, Ripening, and Senescence
Summary and Review
Food for Thought
Supplementary Reading
Tropical and Subtropical Crops and Crop Production Systems
Key Learning Concepts
Climates of the Tropics and Subtropics
Rainfall and Humidity
Light and Temperature
Climatic Regions
Tropical Soils
Important Soil Orders in the Tropics
Cropping Systems
Shifting Cultivation
Fallow System
Permanent Upland Cultivation
Arable Irrigation Farming-Upland Cropping Systems
Examples of Tropical Crop Production Systems
Flooded Systems-Tropical Wet Rice
Cereal-Based Systems of Semiarid West Africa
Mixed Annual/Perennial Systems
African Mixed Root Crop Systems
Caribbean Mixed Root Crop Systems
Comparisons Between Systems
Perennial Crops
Summary and Review
Food for Thought
Supplementary Reading
Nursery Production
Key Learning Concepts
Site Selection and Analysis
Nursery Field Production
Nursery Container Production
Pot-in-Pot Production
Media Testing for Container-Grown Plants
Electrical Conductivity (EC) and pH
Media Testing
Nitrate Nitrogen Testing
Fertilizers
Summary and Review
Food for Thought
Supplementary Reading
Landscape Plants: Evergreen Trees and Shrubs, Deciduous Trees and Shrubs, and Herbaceous Plants
Key Learning Concepts
Introduction
Environmental Factors Affecting Plant Selection
Temperature
Light
Moisture
Wind
Soil
Trees and Shrubs in the Landscape
Choosing a Quality Tree or Shrub
Correct Planting of Woody Trees and Shrubs
Care of the Newly Purchased Tree
The Native Soil
Preparing the Hole and Planting
Mulching the Soil Surface
Tree Staking and Trunk Protection
Fertilizing Trees After Planting
Irrigation After Planting
Tree Care During the First Year-A Summary
Pruning Trees
Pruning Methods
Pruning Shrubs
Flowering on One-Year-Old Wood
Flowering on Current Year's Wood
Pruning Nonflowering Shrubs
Description of Commonly Utilized Species
Herbaceous Plants
Preparing the Garden
Perennial Maintenance
The Wonderful World of Perennials
Specialty Perennials
Summary and Review
Food for Thought
Supplementary Reading
Floriculture
Key Learning Concepts
The Greenhouse Industry
Controlling the Greenhouse Environment
Temperature
Light
Control of Plant Growth and Flowering
Growing Media
Irrigation and Water Quality
Mineral Nutrition
Diseases and Insects
Propagation
Greenhouse Crops
Cut Flowers
Flowering Pot Plants
Foliage Plants
Bedding Plants
Bulb Crops
Summary and Review
Food for Thought
Supplementary Reading
Turfgrasses
Key Learning Concepts
Establishing a Turf
Turfgrass Structure
Choosing Turfgrasses
Soil Preparation
Seeding
Seeding Depth
Time to Sow
Seed Germination and Seedling Establishment
Sodding
Points to Consider When Sodding
Steps to Follow When Sodding
Overseeding
Renovation
Maintenance
Principal Turf Management Practices
Mowing
Cool-Season Turfgrass Growth Regulators
Fertilization
Points to Consider When Conducting a Soil Test
Use of Sulfur to Decrease Soil pH
Micronutrients
Points to Consider When Fertilizing
Determining Irrigation Requirements
Points to Consider When Irrigating
Methods of Reducing Irrigation Requirements
Syringing
Irrigation Water Quality
Secondary Management Practices
Pest Control
Secondary Cultural Practices
Determining Secondary Cultural Practice Requirements
Cultivation
Mechanical Thatch Removal
Top-Dressing
Localized Dry Spot
Miscellaneous Management Practices
Seasonal Growth
Summary and Review
Food for Thought
Supplementary Reading
Residential and Public Landscapes
Key Learning Concepts
The Residential Landscape
Planning the Landscape
Functions of Plants in the Landscape
Plant Selection
Summary and Review
Food for Thought
Supplementary Reading
Harvest, Post-Harvest Handling, Storage, Distribution, and Marketing
Key Learning Concepts
Harvesting
Functions of Harvesting Machinery and Equipment
Mechanically Harvested Crops
Post-Harvest Handling and Preservation
Post-Harvest Deterioration
Quality
Post-Harvest Handling
Preservation by Drying
Storage
Marketing of Agricultural Products
The Process of Marketing
Governmental Marketing Services
Agricultural Cooperatives
Marketing Boards
Transporting Commodities
Rail Transport
Truck Transport
Sea Transport
Air Transport
Summary and Review
Food for Thought
Supplementary Reading
Appendix
Glossary
Index

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