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Forensic Anthropology Training Manual

ISBN-10: 0130492930
ISBN-13: 9780130492937
Edition: 2nd 2007 (Revised)
List price: $70.60
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Description: This training manual is designed to serve three purposes: to be used as a general introduction to the field of forensic anthropology; as a framework for training; and as a practical reference tool. The book will make readers aware of the challenges  More...

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Book details

List price: $70.60
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: Prentice Hall PTR
Publication date: 7/24/2006
Binding: Comb Bound 
Pages: 384
Size: 8.50" wide x 11.00" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.694

This training manual is designed to serve three purposes: to be used as a general introduction to the field of forensic anthropology; as a framework for training; and as a practical reference tool. The book will make readers aware of the challenges and responsibilities of the forensic scientist, the multidisciplinary nature of the work, and the international potential for the forensic sciences. The manual examines physical evidence, death investigation specialists, forensic anthropology, human Osteology, human Odontology, laboratory analysis, field methods, professional results, and human rights applications. For those seeking basic knowledge necessary to collect and process skeletonized human remains.

Dr. Karen Ramey Burns is a consulting forensic anthropologist specializing in human identification from bones. Based at the University of Georgia, Dr. Burns has worked at crime scenes, mass murder sites, cemeteries, and disaster scenes on five continents. She resides in Athens, Georgia.

Preface
Introduction to Forensic Anthropology
Introduction: The Problem of the Unidentified
Who are the "missing, unidentified, and disappeared"?
Why is identification so difficult?
The Discipline of Forensic Anthropology
History of Forensic Anthropology
Educational Requirements
How is the work of an anthropologist different from the work of a pathologist or medical examiner?
Objectives of an Anthropological Investigation
Questions Basic to Personal Identification
Questions Regarding the Circumstances of Death
Cause and Manner of Death
Stages of an Investigation
Osteology, the Biology of Bone
Introduction
Why study human osteology?
What are the practical applications?
Structure and Function of the Skeletal System
Tissues: Communities of Cells with a Common Purpose
Connective Tissue: The Most Durable Tissue of the Body
Dense Connective Tissue: Holding Everything Together
Cartilage: A Strong but Flexible Connective Tissue
Bone: The Strongest, Least Flexible Connective Tissue
Classification and Description of Bones
By Location
By Size and Shape
By Origin
By Structure
Directional and Sectional Terms for the Human Body
Osteological Terms
The Skull and Hyoid
Introduction
Left/Right Recognition
Individualization
Origin and Growth
Frontal Bone
Description, Location, Articulation
Individualization
Origin and Growth
Parietal Bones
Description, Location, Articulation
Left/Right Recognition
Individualization
Origin and Growth
Occipital Bone
Description, Location, Articulation
Individualization
Origin and Growth
Temporal Bones
Description, Location, Articulation
Left/Right Recognition
Individualization
Origin and Growth
Zygomatic Bone (Malar)
Description, Location, Articulation
Left/Right Recognition
Individualization
Origin and Growth
Sphenoid
Description, Location, Articulation
Origin and Growth
Maxillae
Description, Location, Articulation
Individualization
Origin and Growth
Mandible
Description, Location, Articulation
Individualization
Origin and Growth
Nasals, Lacrimals, and Ethmoid
Age Changes in the Skull
Sex Differences in the Skull
Racial Analysis of the Skull
Individualization
Anthropometry
Frankfort Plane (a.k.a. Frankfort Horizontal)
Craniometric Points
Directions for Accurate Measurements
Measuring the Cranium
Measuring the Orbit
Measuring the Palate
Measuring the Mandible
Chord Measurements
Head Shape: Cephalic Indices and Discriminant Function Analyses
Computerized Analysis of Sex and Race: FORDISC
The Hyoid
Description, Location, Articulation
The Shoulder Girdle and Thorax: Clavicle, Scapula, Ribs, and Sternum
Introduction
Clavicle: The Collar Bone
Description, Location, Articulation
Left/Right Recognition
Origin and Growth
Scapula: The Shoulder Blade
Description, Location, Articulation
Left/Right Recognition
Individualization: Handedness, Left/Right Dominance
Origin and Growth
Ribs
Description, Location, Articulation
Rib Sorting: Left/Right and Superior/Inferior Recognition
Individualization: Costo-Vertebral Articulations and Abnormalities
Age Determination with Ribs
Age Changes in Sternal Rib Ends of Males
Origin and Growth
Sternum: The Breast Bone
Description, Location, Articulation
Individualization
Origin and Growth
The Vertebral Column
Introduction
Description, Location, Articulation
Superior/Inferior Recognition
Individualization
Origin and Growth
Cervical Vertebrae (Atlas, Axis, and C3-C7)
Thoracic Vertebrae (T1-T12)
Lumbar Vertebrae (L1-L5)
Sacral Vertebrae (S1-S5 or Sacrum)
Coccygeal Vertebrae (Coccyx)
Reassembling the Vertebral Column, Step by Step
Sort First
Begin at the Top
Stop and Review the Results
The Aging Vertebral Body
Age Changes in Vertebral Bodies, Superior and Lateral Views
Age Changes in Older Vertebral Bodies: Osteophytic Growth
The Arm: Humerus, Radius, and Ulna-and Joints
Introduction
Joints
Structure, Function, and Movement of Joints
Synovial Joints, Types of Movement with Examples
Humerus: The Upper Arm
Description, Location, Articulation
Left/Right Recognition
Handedness
Sexual Differences
Origin and Growth
The Forearm
Radius
Description, Location, Articulation
Left/Right Recognition
Handedness
Sexual Differences
Origin and Growth
Ulna
Description, Location, Articulation
Left/Right Recognition
Origin and Growth
The Hand: Carpals, Metacarpals, and Phalanges
Introduction
Carpal Bones: Wrist Bones
Description, Location, Articulation
Left/Right Recognition
A Comparison of Carpal Characteristics
Origin and Growth
Metacarpal Bones: The Palm of the Hand
Description, Location, Articulation
Left/Right Recognition
Origin and Growth
Sex
A Comparison of Metacarpal Characteristics
Phalanges of the Hand: Finger Bones
Description, Location, Articulation
Left/Right Recognition
Origin and Growth
A Method for Sorting Phalanges
The Pelvis (Innominate or Os Coxae)
Introduction
Innominate: Ilium, Ischium, and Pubis
Description, Location, Articulation
Left/Right Recognition
Origin and Growth
Sexual Differences
Sexual Differences in the Pubis
Sexual Differences in the Ilium
Age Changes
Age Changes in the Pubic Symphysis
Analysis of the Pubic Symphysis
Age Changes in Pubic Symphyses of Males
Age Changes in the Auricular Surface of the Ilium
The Leg: Femur, Tibia, Fibula, and Patella
Introduction
Femur: Upper Leg, Thigh Bone
Description, Location, Articulation
Left/Right Recognition
Sexual Differences in the Femur
Racial Differences in the Femur
Bones of Confusion
Origin and Growth
Patella: Kneecap
Description, Location, Articulation
Left/Right Recognition
Origin and Growth
Lower Leg: Tibia and Fibula
Tibia: Lower Leg, Shin Bone, Medial Ankle Bone
Description, Location, Articulation
Sexual Differences in the Tibia
Left/Right Recognition
Origin and Growth
Fibula: Lower Leg, Lateral Ankle Bone
Description, Location, Articulation
Left/Right Recognition
Bones of Confusion
Origin and Growth
The Foot: Tarsal Bones, Metatarsal Bones, and Phalanges
Introduction
Tarsal Bones: Ankle and Arch of the Foot
Description, Location, Articulation
Left/Right Recognition
Origin and Growth
A Comparison of Tarsal Characteristics
Metatarsal Bones: Foot Bones
Description, Location, Articulation
A Comparison of Metatarsal Characteristics
Left/Right Recognition
Origin and Growth
Phalanges: Toe Bones
Description, Location, Articulation
Left/Right Recognition
Individualization
Origin and Growth
A Finger-Toe Comparison
Odontology (Teeth)
Introduction
Structure and Function of Teeth and Supporting Tissues
Directions, Surfaces, and Anatomy
Tooth Numbering Systems
Tooth Recognition
Tips for Distinguishing Similar Teeth
Distinguishing Maxillary Incisors from Mandibular Incisors
Distinguishing Maxillary Premolars from Mandibular Premolars
Distinguishing Maxillary Molars from Mandibular Molars
Complete Permanent Dentition
Recognizing Racial Traits
Shovel-Shaped Incisors
Carabelli's Cusp
Dental Aging
Formative Changes in Teeth
Infant and Toddler: Deciduous Dentition
Child: Mixed Dentition
Teenager and Adult: Permanent Dentition
Age Changes in Adult Teeth
Dental Anomalies
Dentistry and Oral Disease
Dental Caries
Periodontal Disease
Apical Abscess
Calculus Accumulation
Occlusion and Malocclusion
Dental Staining
"Meth Mouth": Effects of Methamphetamine Use
The Edentulous Condition: Effects of Long-Term Tooth Loss
Congenital Dental Conditions
Dental Inventory Form
Introduction to the Forensic Sciences
Introduction
Physical Evidence
What Is Evidence?
How Is Evidence Used?
Challenges in Handling Physical Evidence
Death Investigation Specialists
Ballistic Specialists
Crime Scene Investigators
Criminalists
Drug Analysts
Fingerprint Specialists
Forensic Anthropologists
Forensic Pathologists
Questioned Document Examiners
Serologists and Geneticists (Forensic Biologists)
Toxicologists
Choosing the Correct Forensic Specialist
No Visual Identification Possible
Legal Consequence Unlikely
Laboratory Analysis
Introduction
Preparation for Analysis
Physical Facility
Equipment, Supplies, and Reference Materials
Evidence Management
Assign Case Number
Organize Database
Prepare Case File
Inventory the Evidence and Assign Additional Numbers if Necessary
Transfer Non-Anthropological Evidence to Appropriate Specialists
Prepare Evidence for Examination
Skeletal Analysis and Description
Minimum Number of Individuals
Age
Sex
Race
Handedness
Stature
Trauma
Disease and Pathology
Quality Check for Skeletal Analysis
Age Changes
Sexual Variation
Racial Variation
Stature Estimation
Trauma
Disease
Human Identification (ID)
Skeletal Identification: The Challenge
Identification Levels
Methods of Identification
Field Methods
Introduction
Pre-Planning for Field Work
Objectives
Legal Permission
Funding
Insurance
Security and Storage
Antemortem Information
The Interview
Medical Records
Antemortem Photographs
Preparation for Excavation and Disinterment
Numbering System
Data Record Forms
Equipment and Supplies
Burial Location and Scene Investigation
Remote Sensing
What to Look for Before Disturbing the Surface
Burial Classification
Surface Burial or Below-Surface Burial
Individual or Commingled Burial
Isolated or Adjacent Burial
Primary or Secondary Burial
Disturbed or Undisturbed Burial
The Excavation/Exhumation
Duty Assignments
Excavation Methods
Postmortem Interval (Time since Death) and Forensic Taphonomy
Immediate Postmortem Changes
The Process of Decomposition
Environmental Factors (Climate)
Carrion Feeders
Associated Plants
Funerary Practices
Other Preservation Factors
Other Evidence of Funerary Practices
Quality Check for Field Work
Has the entire scene been searched and sampled?
Are all human remains recognized and recovered?
Is the written documentation complete?
Can the entire scene and sequence of recovery be reconstructed from the photographic documentation?
Professional Results
Introduction
Record Keeping
Background Information
Significant Dates
Chain of Custody
Notes
Report Writing
Cover Page
Case Background
Condition of the Evidence (Pre-Processing Appearance)
Inventory
Anthropological Description
Other Observations
Conclusions
Recommendations
Disposition of the Remains
Signature and Date
Appendix
The Foundation
Qualification of the Expert
Authenticity of the Physical Evidence
Admissibility of Expert Witness Testimony
Depositions and Demonstrative Evidence
Deposition
Demonstrative Evidence
Basic Ethics
Respect
Honesty
Confidentiality
Hierarchy of Obligations
Final Preparation and Courtroom Testimony
Be Well Prepared
Demonstrate Honesty
Show Respect
Professional Associations
Large-Scale Applications: Disasters, Human Rights, and POW/MIA Recovery
Introduction
Disasters and Mass Fatality Incidents
MFI Response Within U.S. Government Jurisdiction
DMORT
The Role of the Forensic Anthropologist in Disaster Operations
DMORT Processing and Temporary Morgue Stations
Discussion
Human Rights Work
Introduction: The Scope of the Problem
Human Rights and the Law
The Role of the Scientist
Contributions of Forensic Anthropologists
History: The Mission in Argentina and the EAAF
International Human Rights Work and Domestic Forensic Work Compared
Critical Organizers, Funders, and Participants
Types of Missions Related to Forensic Anthropology
Conclusion
POW/MIA Repatriation
The Missing Americans
U.S. Army Central Identification Laboratory in Hawaii
Field Methods
Laboratory Methods
Conclusion
Forms and Diagrams
Glossary of Terms
Bibliography
Index

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