Soils in Our Environment

ISBN-10: 0130200360
ISBN-13: 9780130200365
Edition: 9th 2001
List price: $121.00
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Book details

List price: $121.00
Edition: 9th
Copyright year: 2001
Publisher: Prentice Hall PTR
Publication date: 6/6/2000
Binding: Mixed Media
Pages: 642
Size: 8.23" wide x 10.31" long x 1.18" tall
Weight: 3.432
Language: English

Preface
Soil Composition and Importance
Preview and Important Facts
What Is Soil?
Components of Soil
Historical Perspectives
Soil-A Precious Resource
Soil Quality
Summary
Questions
For Further Study
Soil Physical Properties
Preview and Important Facts
Soil Texture
Rock Fragments
Soil Structure
Bulk Density
Soil Porosity and Permeability
Soil Air
Consistence (Strength)
Soil Color
Soil Temperature
Soil Physical Properties and Engineering
Summary
Questions
For Further Study
Soil Water Properties
Preview and Important Facts
Water Chemistry
Soil Water Content
Soil Water Potential and Availability
Soils as Water Reservoirs
Methods of Determining Water Content or Potential
Water Flow Into and Through Soils
Water Uptake by Plants
Consumptive Use and Water Efficiency
Reducing Water Loss
Summary
Questions
For Further Study
Soil Chemical Properties
Preview and Important Facts
Soil Clays
Organic Colloids (Humus)
Cation Exchange
Anion Exchange and Adsorption
Soil pH
Equilibrium and Buffering
Summary
Questions
For Further Study
Organisms and Organic Residues
Preview and Important Facts
Animalia: Rodents, Worms, and Insects
Plantae: Plants
Fungi: Molds, Mushrooms, and Mycorrhizae
Protista
Monera: Bacteria
Soil Viruses and Viroids
Conditions for Microbial Activity
Composition of Organic Matter
Decomposition of Organic Matter
Effects of Soil Organic Matter
Organic Waste Materials
Summary
Questions
For Further Study
Soil Formation and Morphology
Preview and Important Facts
Weathering of Soil Minerals
Soil Formation: Building a Matrix for Living Organisms
Soil-Forming Factors
Landforms and Soil Development
Morphology of Soil Horizons
Diagnostic Horizons
Degradation of Soils
Soil Individuals and Mapping Units
Summary
Questions
For Further Study
Soil Taxonomy
Preview and Important Facts
U.S. System of Soil Taxonomy
Constructing Taxonomic Names
Soil Moisture and Temperature Regimes
Additional Terminology for Family Groupings
Distribution of Soil Orders
Soil Order: Gelisols (Soils with Permafrost)
Soil Order: Histosols (Organic Soils)
Soil Order: Entisols (Soils with Little or No Horizon Development)
Soil Order: Inceptisols (Soils with Weak Horizon Development)
Soil Order: Andisols (Young Volcanic Soils)
Soil Order: Aridisols (Desert Soils)
Soil Order: Mollisols (Prairie Soils)
Soil Order: Vertisols (Shrink-Swell Clays)
Soil Order: Alfisols (Fertile Soils with Subsoil Clay)
Soil Order: Spodosols (Soils with Humus under Sand)
Soil Order: Ultisols (Highly Leached Soils with Subsoil Clay)
Soil Order: Oxisols (Highly Oxidized Soils)
Other Soil Classification Systems
Summary
Questions
For Further Study
Acidic Soils and Salt-Affected Soils
Preview and Important Facts
Why Some Soils Are Acidic
Ecological Relation of Soil Acidity
Composition of Lime
Reactions of Lime Added to Acidic Soils
Crops, Lime, and Soil
Acidifying Soils
Soluble Salts and Plant Growth
Saline and Sodic Soils
Salt Balance
Reclaiming Salty Soils
Managing Salty Soils
Monitoring Salts in the Field
Summary
Questions
For Further Study
Plant Nutrients
Preview and Important Facts
Essential Elements
Mechanisms of Nutrient Uptake
Soil Nitrogen Gains and Transformations
Nitrogen Losses from the System
Nitrogen Balance
Materials Supplying Nitrogen
Soil Phosphorus
The Phosphorus Problem
Managing Soil Phosphorus
Materials Supplying Phosphorus
Soil Potassium
Soil Calcium
Soil Magnesium
Soil Sulfur
Soil Boron
Soil Chloride
Soil Copper
Soil Iron
Soil Manganese
Soil Molybdenum
Soil Zinc
Nickel and the Beneficial Elements
Summary
Questions
For Further Study
Soil Fertility Management
Preview and Important Facts
Goals and Concerns in Fertility Management
Scale of Land Management
Soil Sampling
Soil Tests
Analysis of Plants
Fertilizer Recommendations
Fertilizer Quality
Fertilizer Calculations
Techniques of Fertilizer Application
Fertilizer Efficiency
Livestock Manure as Fertilizer
Summary
Questions
For Further Study
Soil Erosion
Preview and Important Facts
The Soil Erosion Problem
Nature of Water Erosion
Factors Affecting Erosion by Water
Erosion Tolerance
Water Erosion Control
Nature of Wind Erosion
Factors Affecting Erosion by Wind
Wind-Erosion Control
Summary
Questions
For Further Study
Tillage and Farming Systems
Preview and Important Facts
Purposes for Tillage
Tillage Terminology
Reducing or Eliminating Tillage
Farming Systems and Environmental Quality
Transgenic Crops
Sustainable Agriculture and Organic Farming
Summary
Questions
For Further Study
Water Resources and Irrigation
Preview and Important Facts
Water Resources for Irrigation
Irrigation Water Quality
Meeting Water Needs of Plants
Methods of Applying Water
Special Irrigation Techniques
Irrigating Efficiently
Increasing Water Supplies
Summary
Questions
For Further Study
Wetlands and Land Drainage
Preview and Important Facts
Wetlands Trends and Laws
Wetlands Characteristics
Functions of Wetlands
Drainage to Improve Soil Conditions
Drainage Pros and Cons
Drainage System Selection
Surface Drainage Systems
Subsurface Drainage Systems
Summary
Questions
For Further Study
Pollution of Soil, Water, and Air
Preview and Important Facts
Threats to the Environment
Pollution Terminology
Plant Nutrients
Organic Wastes
Pesticides
Heavy Metals
Natural Toxins
Particulates and Gases
Radionuclides
Soluble Salts
Soil Sediments as Pollutants
Summary
Questions
For Further Study
Toward Environmental Integrity
Preview and Important Facts
Environmental Laws
Best Management Practices
Managing Organic Wastes
Reducing Pesticide Contamination
Improving Water Quality
Improving Air Quality
Improving Soil Quality
Remediation of Contaminated Soil
Summary
Questions
For Further Study
Soil Surveys and Land-Use Planning
Preview and Important Facts
Conducting a Soil Survey
Soil Survey Reports
Electronic Databases for Soils
Special Soil Designations
Land Evaluation
Data Interpretations for Soil Uses
Controlling Land Use
Summary
Questions
For Further Study
Greenhouse Soils and Soilless Culture
Preview and Important Facts
Root Media
Root Media Mixes
Pasteurization of Media
Watering
Fertilizing
Soil and Tissue Testing
Hydroponics: Solution Culture
Summary
Questions
For Further Study
Glossary
Index

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