Essential Guide to Computing The Story of Information Technology

ISBN-10: 0130194697
ISBN-13: 9780130194695
Edition: 2001
List price: $44.99 Buy it from $4.56
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Description: The Essential Guide to Computers is an intelligent, thorough, friendly, and up-to-date explanation of computer technology. It's perfect for smart professionals who want to understand the technology -- but don't have computer science or engineering  More...

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Book details

List price: $44.99
Copyright year: 2001
Publisher: Prentice Hall PTR
Publication date: 8/1/2000
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 528
Size: 6.75" wide x 9.00" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 1.958
Language: English

The Essential Guide to Computers is an intelligent, thorough, friendly, and up-to-date explanation of computer technology. It's perfect for smart professionals who want to understand the technology -- but don't have computer science or engineering degrees! Learn how computers have evolved from early, room-sized monoliths to PCs to tomorrow's "information appliances." Understand each key hardware component of a contemporary computer, including microprocessors, memory, storage, I/O, and displays. Understand the role of systems architecture in the orderly evolution of computing technology; then learn what operating systems are and how they compare. Understand the role of programming languages and what they try to achieve; including the basics of object-orientation, today's leading approach to software development. Next, learn how computers can be organized into many kinds of networks, from LANs to the Internet; and how this enables new kinds of software and applications, including e-commerce. For anyone who wants to understand the fundamentals of how computers and networks work.

Acknowledgments
Introduction
Computer Hardware
The Core of Computing: How the Key Elements of Hardware Work Together
An Overview of How a Computer Works
What Happens When a Computer Starts Up
The Computer Begins to Work
Binary and Digital
The Internal Operations of the CPU
Fetch
Decode (Analyze)
Execute
Store
The Clock
Interrupts
Designing a Faster CPU
Architecture: Suiting the CPU to the Task
RISC
SIMD
VLIW
Linking CPUs
Microprocessors for Special Purposes
ASICs
DSPs
Media Processors
FPGAs
New Approaches to Computing
Supercooling
Optical Computing
Even More Exotic Stuff
Conclusion
Test Your Understanding
Memory, Storage, and Input/Output
An Overview of How Storage Works
A File is Loaded into Memory
The CPU Gets Information from Disk
A File is Saved to Disk
The Memory System
The Memory Problem
The System (Memory) Bus
Memory Chips
Some Other Types of Chip Storage
Disk Storage
Magnetic Storage
Optical Storage
The I/O Bus
PCI
External I/O
Chipsets
Conclusion
Test Your Understanding
Computer Monitors and Graphics Systems
Making an Image
Pixels and Dots
Resolution
Resolution, Content, and Perception
Color
Contrast and Brightness
Image Stability and Smoothness of Motion
Monitor Technologies
The Structure of Graphics Systems
Bitmapped Images
Vector Images
Bitmaps vs. Vectors
Generations of Graphics Systems
First Generation Graphics
Second Generation Graphics Systems
The Key Elements of Third Generation (3d) Systems
Changes in Graphics Software
Printers
Printer Resolution
Major Types of Printers
Printer Intelligence
Conclusion
Test Your Understanding
Silicon Economics
Silicon Foundations: Making Chips
Smaller is Cheaper
Smaller is Faster
Smaller Uses Less Power
New Approaches to Chipmaking
Microprocessor Families
Intel Corporation
Intel Clones
RISC CPUs
Summary: Can Anyone Compete with Intel?
Types of Computers
Mainframes
Supercomputers
Servers and Workstations
Desktops
The Set-top Box
Portable Systems
The Evolving Microprocessor Architecture: What Do You Do With a Billion Transistors on One Chip?
ASIC-Oriented
General-Purpose CPU
Media Processors
System on Chip
Conclusion
Test Your Understanding
Putting it All Together
Servers
A Graphics System
An Analytical System
A Desktop System
A Portable System
Software
Fundamentals of the Operating System
Why Have an Operating System?
The Core Functions of an Operating System
System Supervision
Services to Hardware
Services to Software
Communications Services
Security
Single-User Systems in a Networked Environment
Directories
The Structure of the Operating System
The Kernel
User Section
The Challenge of Multiprocessing
Multiprocessing and the OS
Multiprocessing in Hardware
Conclusion
Test Your Understanding
Evolution of the Operating System
Mainframe Systems
Minicomputer/Server Systems
Proprietary: VMS
Proprietary: OS/400
Open: UNIX and Variants
Conclusion
Test Your Understanding
Microcomputer Operating Systems
Microsoft's MS-DOS
An Overview of MS-DOS
Memory and Task Management
The Mac OS
Key Characteristics of the Mac OS
Initial Development of the Mac OS
Compatibility Issues
The Mac Shifts to the PowerPC
The Current Mac OS
Windows
Key Characteristics of the Window OS Series
Windows 1.0 to 2.0
Windows 3.0
Windows 95 and Windows 98
Windows NT/2000
OS/2
A Network-Only OS: Netware
Very Small System Oss
The Palm OS
Epoc
Conclusion
Test Your Understanding
Programming, Object Oriented Technology, and Software Development
Basic Programming Terminology
Subroutines
Interrupted vs. Compiled Languages
The Software Crisis
Structured Programming
Project Modeling
Modular Programming
Programming Languages by Level
Machine Language Programming
Assembly Language
High-level Languages
4GLs (whatever they are)
Artificial Intelligence: 5GL?
Object-Oriented Technology
How OOT Works
Applying OOT
The Compound Document Concept
The Major Object-Oriented Languages
Software Development Strategies and Programming Tools
CASE Tools
Rapid Application Development
Conclusion
Test Your Understanding
Databases, Applications, and Software Reliability
Databases
The Elements of a Database
Planning a Database
The Relational Model of Database Organization
Nonrelational Databases
The Power of Legacy Database Systems
Database Markets
Application Software
Spreadsheets
Word Processing
Voice Recognition: Coming on Strong
The Software Industry
Microsoft
The Rest
Conclusion
Test Your Understanding
Putting It All Together
Choosing an OS for E-Commerce
Choosing a Database for E-Commerce
Choosing a Programming Language and Tools for E-Commerce
Networks and the Internet
Digital vs. Analog: Communications Basics
Waves of Information
Amplitude Modulation (AM)
Frequency Modulation (FM)
Phase Modulation (PM)
Bandwidth
Amplitude and Attention
Frequencies and Diffusion
Replacing Analog Signaling with Digital
Data Compression
Noncontent-based Compression
Error Detection and Correction
Forward Error Detection/Correction
Conclusion
Test Your Understanding
Network Fundamentals
An Overview of Network Fundamentals
A Quick Analogy
Sending a File
The Importance of Packets
Addresses
Sequencing and Flow Control
Error Detection and Correction
Packet Size
Latency
Protocol Stacks
Layer 4: The Transport Layer
Layer 3: The Network Layer
Layer 2: The Data Link Layer
Layer 1: The Physical layer
Getting From A To B: Circuits, Virtual Circuits, and Circuitless Approaches
Leased Line
Switched Circuit
Internet Type
Cell or Framed Switched
Media
Wireless
Wired
Topologies, Multiplexing, and Synchronization
Topologies
Channels: Timing and Multiplexing
Network Connecting Points
Passive Devices: Hubs and Repeaters
Active Devices: Switches, Routers and Bridges
The Issue of Multicasting
Conclusion
Test Your Understanding
Types of Networks
Local Area Networks
Ethernet
Token Ring
Lan to Lan Connections: Campus Networks
FDDI
ATM
Gigabit Ethernet
Which is Best for Backbone and Campus Links?
Local to Wide Area Connections: Access Networks
Carriers (Physical Links)
Network Services
Wans
Sonet
Wave Division Multiplexing
Wireless Wide Area and Access Networks
Wireless Local Loop
LMDS and MMDS
Satellite Links
Conclusion
Test Your Understanding
Client/Server Concepts
Network Generations
Terminal-Host
Client-File Server
Client/Server
Distributed Data VS. Distributed Processing
Distributed Data Structures
Client/Server Data Systems
Data Warehouses
Computer Telephony Integration
Distributed Applications/Groupware
E-mail and Calendaring
Groupware: Lotus Notes and Others
Web Integration
Agent Software
Conclusion
Test Your Understanding
The Internet and Network Security
Origins of the Internet
From DARPA to ARPA
Early Uses
Organization
Virtual Private Networks, Firewalls, and the Concept of an Intranet
Network Security
Encryption Concepts
Digital Signatures
Digital Envelopes
Digital Certificates/Digital IDs
Digital Birthmarks
Cracking Codes
Methodology
Summary of Digital Security
Conclusion
Test Your Understanding
Putting it All Together
Conclusion: The Next Stages of Computing
Glossary
Recommended Readings
Index

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