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List of Figures and Tables | |

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Preface | |

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Acknowledgments | |

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About the Authors | |

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Purpose of Statistics | |

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Studying Crime and Taking Statistics | |

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Descriptive and Inferential Statistics | |

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From Samples to Populations | |

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Mathematical Operations | |

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Computer Technology and Statistics | |

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Summary | |

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Foundations of Research | |

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Goals of Science | |

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Variables and Attributes | |

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Levels of Measurement | |

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Nominal Level | |

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Ordinal Level | |

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Interval Level | |

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Ratio Level | |

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Hypothesis Construction | |

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Role of Theory | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Data Organization | |

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Data Distributions | |

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Single Data Distribution | |

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Frequency Distribution | |

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Grouped Frequency Distribution | |

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Descriptive Statistics | |

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Proportions | |

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Percentages | |

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Ratios | |

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Rates | |

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Cross-tabulations | |

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Using Excel to Compute Descriptive Statistics | |

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Proportions | |

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Percentages | |

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Cumulative Percentage | |

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Cumulative Frequency | |

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Rates | |

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Graphical Representation of Data | |

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Histograms | |

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Bar Graphs | |

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Line Graphs | |

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Pie Charts | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Measures of Central Tendency | |

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Single Data Distribution | |

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Mode | |

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Median | |

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Mean | |

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Frequency Distribution | |

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Mode | |

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Median | |

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Mean | |

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Grouped Data Distribution | |

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Mode | |

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Median | |

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Mean | |

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Using Excel to Compute Measures of Central Tendency | |

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Single Data Distribution | |

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Frequency Distribution | |

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Grouped Data Distribution | |

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Selecting a Measure of Central Tendency | |

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Level of Measurement | |

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Shape of Distribution | |

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Comparison of the Mode, Median, and Mean | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Measures of Dispersion | |

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Single Data Distribution | |

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Range | |

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Variance | |

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Standard Deviation | |

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Frequency Distribution | |

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Range | |

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Variance | |

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Standard Deviation | |

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Grouped Data Distribution | |

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Variance | |

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Standard Deviation | |

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Using Excel to Compute Measures of Dispersion | |

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Single Data Distribution | |

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Frequency Distribution | |

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Grouped Data Distribution | |

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Usefulness of the Standard Deviation | |

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Characteristics of the Standard Deviation | |

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Interpreting the Standard Deviation | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Probability Theory | |

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Basic Concepts of Probability Theory | |

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Probability Distribution | |

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The Normal Curve | |

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Properties of the Normal Curve | |

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Area Under the Normal Curve | |

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Standardized Scores (z) | |

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Probability and the Normal Curve | |

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Using Excel to Calculate z-Scores | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Sample Statistics to Population Parameters | |

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Sample Statistics and Population Parameters | |

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Probability Sampling | |

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Types of Probability Samples | |

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Sampling Error | |

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Sampling Distribution | |

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Estimating a Population Mean ([mu]) Using the z Distribution | |

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Confidence Levels | |

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Confidence Intervals | |

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Estimating a Population Mean ([mu]) Using the t Distribution | |

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Estimating a Population Proportion ([pi]) Using the z Distribution | |

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Using Excel to Construct Confidence Intervals | |

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Confidence Intervals for a Population Mean ([mu]) Using z | |

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Confidence Intervals for a Population Mean ([mu]) Using t | |

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Confidence Interval for a Population Proportion ([pi]) Using z | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Statistical Analysis for a Population Mean and Proportion: z Tests | |

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The Logic of Hypothesis Testing | |

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Nondirectional and Directional Hypotheses | |

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Decision Making about the Null Hypothesis | |

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Significance Level | |

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Comparing the Test Statistic to the Probability Distribution | |

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One-Sample z Test | |

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Procedures for Calculating a One-Sample z Test | |

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z Test for Proportions | |

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Using Excel to Compute z Tests | |

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One-Sample z Test | |

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z Test for Proportions | |

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Assumptions of z Tests | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Statistical Analysis for Nominal and Ordinal Variables: Chi-Square and Spearman's Rho | |

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Chi-Square: Introduction | |

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One-Sample Chi-Square | |

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Procedures for Calculating the One-Sample Chi-Square | |

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Two-Sample Chi-Square | |

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Procedures for Calculating the Two-Sample Chi-Square | |

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Measures of Association: Phi Coefficient and Cramer's V | |

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Phi Coefficient ([Phi]) | |

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Cramer's V | |

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Spearman's Rank-Order Correlation Coefficient | |

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Procedures for Calculating Spearman's Rho | |

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Using Excel to Compute Chi-Square and Spearman's Rho | |

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Two-Sample Chi-Square | |

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Spearman's Rho | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Statistical Analysis for Comparing Two Population Means: t Tests | |

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Independent-Samples t Test | |

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Procedures for Independent-Samples t Test | |

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Dependent- or Matched-Samples t Test | |

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Procedures for Dependent- or Matched-Samples t Statistic | |

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Assumptions of the t Test | |

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Using Excel to Compute t Tests | |

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Independent-Samples t Test | |

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Dependent-Samples t Test | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Statistical Analysis for Comparing Three or More Population Means: Analysis of Variance | |

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Comparison of t Statistic and ANOVA | |

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Assumptions of ANOVA | |

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Single-Factor ANOVA | |

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Procedures for Calculating a Single-Factor ANOVA | |

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Post Hoc Comparisons | |

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Procedures for Calculating Tukey's HSD Test | |

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Repeated-Measures ANOVA | |

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Two-Factor ANOVA | |

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Using Excel to Compute Analysis of Variance | |

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Tukey's HSD | |

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Repeated-Measures ANOVA | |

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Two-Factor ANOVA | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Statistical Analysis for Assessing Relationships: Correlation | |

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Nature of Correlation | |

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Interpreting Correlation Coefficients | |

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Pearson's Correlation Coefficient (r) | |

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Procedures for Calculating Pearson's Product-Moment | |

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Correlation Coefficient | |

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Using Scatterplots in Correlation Analysis | |

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Coefficients of Determination and Nondetermination | |

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Partial Correlation Coefficient | |

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Procedures for Calculating a Partial Correlation Coefficient | |

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Using Excel for Correlation Analysis | |

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Pearson's r | |

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Partial Correlation Coefficient | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Statistical Analysis for Prediction: Regression | |

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The Regression Equation | |

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The Regression Line | |

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Calculating the Slope (b) and the Intercept (a) | |

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Procedures for Regression Analysis | |

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Residual Error | |

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Multiple Regression Analysis | |

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Using Excel for Regression Analysis | |

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Bivariate Regression | |

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Multiple Regression | |

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Summary | |

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Problems | |

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Probability Distribution Tables | |

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z Distribution Table (Normal Curve) | |

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Critical Values of t | |

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Critical Values of r at the .05 and .01 Significance Levels | |

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Critical Values of F at the .05 and .01 Significance Levels | |

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Critical Values of Chi-Square at the .10, .05, .01, and .001 Significance Levels | |

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Critical Values of Studentized Range (q) at the .05 Significance Level | |

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Critical Values of Spearman's Rho (r[subscript s]) | |

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Chapter Solutions for Odd Questions | |

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Glossary | |

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Bibliography | |

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Index | |