Principles of Stable Isotope Geochemistry

ISBN-10: 0130091391

ISBN-13: 9780130091390

Edition: 2007

Authors: Zachary Sharp
List price: $133.40
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Description: This is the first dedicated book to cover the basics of a wide range of stable isotope applications in a manner appropriate for someone entering the field. At the same time, it offers sufficient detail and numerous references and examples to direct research for further inquiry.Discusses diverse topics such as hydrology, carbon in plants, meteorites, carbonates, metamorphic rocks, etc. Explores the theory and principles of isotope fractionation. Offers unique, up-to-date discussion of meteorite (extraterrestrial) isotope data. Presents the subject in an interesting historical context, with the classic papers noted.A useful reference for students taking the course and professionals entering the field of Geochemistry.

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Book details

List price: $133.40
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: Prentice Hall PTR
Publication date: 1/20/2006
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 360
Size: 8.50" wide x 10.25" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 2.134
Language: English

Preface
About The Author
Introduction
Historical Background
Scope of the Discipline
What Are Stable Isotopes?
Which Elements and Why?
Abundances of the Rare Isotopes of Light Elements
Characteristics of Elements That Undergo Significant Isotopic Fractionation
Applications in the Earth Sciences
Isotope Effects
Kinetic Isotope Effects
Equilibrium Isotope Effects
References
Terminology, Standards, And Mass Spectrometry
Overview
Isotopologues, Isotopomers, and Mass Isotopomers
The Delta Value
Isotope Exchange Reactions
The Fractionation Factor
10<sup>3</sup> ln �, �, and the � Value
Reference Standards
Hydrogen
Carbon
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Sulfur
Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry
The First Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometers
Modern Conventional Mass Spectrometers
Gas Chromatograph Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (GC-IRMS)
Gases Measured in Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry
Relations between Measured and Desired Isotopic Ratios
Ion Microprobe Analyses of Stable Isotope Ratios
References
Equilibrium Isotopic Fractionation
Introduction
Theoretical Determination of Stable Isotope Fractionation Factors
Free Energy of Reaction
The Internal Energy of a Molecule
Vibrational Partition Function
Translational and Rotational Partition Function
The Complete Partition Function Ratio
Extension to More Complex Molecules
Relationship to Temperature
"Empirical" Theoretical Methods
Experimental Determination of Fractionation Factors
Introduction
Mineral;Water Exchange Reactions
Mineral;Calcite Exchange Reactions
Mineral;CO<sup>2</sup> Exchange Reactions
The Three-Phase Approach
Empirical Determination of Fractionation Factors
Other Potential Factors Controlling Isotope Partitioning
Pressure Effect
Composition and Structure
So Which Fractionation Factors Are Correct?
An Example from Quartz;Calcite Fractionation
References
The Hydrosphere
Overview
Natural Abundances of the Isotopologues of Water
Meteoric Water
The Meteoric Water Line
General Features of the GMWL
Variations in Slopes and Intercepts of Local MWLs
Meteoric Waters in Arid and Semiarid Environments
The Deuterium Excess Parameter
Evaporation and Condensation
Evaporation
Condensation: Closed-System (Batch) Isotopic Fractionation
Condensation: Open-System (Rayleigh) Isotopic Fractionation
Factors Controlling the Isotopic Composition of Precipitation
Temperature
Distance or Continentality Effect
Latitude Effect
Altitude Effect
Amount Effect
Seasonal Effects
Groundwater
Geothermal Systems
Basinal Brines and Formation Waters
Glacial Ice
Underlying Bases for Glacial Paleoclimatology
Determining the Age of Glacial Ice
Thinning of Ice Layers
The Example of Camp Century, North Greenland
Example of the GRIP Summit Core: Flickering Climates
References
The Oceans
Overview
Oxygen Isotope Variations in Modern Oceans
Salinity;�<sup>18</sup>O Relations in Shallow Marine Waters
Salinity;�<sup>18</sup>O Relations in Deep Ocean Waters
Depth Profiles in Modern Oceans: �<sup>18</sup>O(<sup>2</sup>)<sup>aq.</sup> and �<sup>13</sup>C(�C<sup>2</sup>)
Isotopic Compositions of Ancient Oceans
Primitive Oceans
Secular Changes in �<sup>18</sup>O of Marine Sediments
Seawater;Basalt Interactions: Buffering the �<sup>18</sup>O Value of the Ocean
Low-Temperature Alteration
High-Temperature Alteration
Evidence from Drill Core Material
Evidence from Obducted Material
Buffering the <sup>18</sup>O/<sup>16</sup>O Ratio of Ocean Water
Summing the Processes Affecting the <sup>18</sup>O/<sup>16</sup>O Ratio of Seawater
Model Calculations
Unresolved Controversy
References
Biogenic Carbonates: Oxygen
Introduction
The Phosphoric Acid Method
A Major Breakthrough
Acid Fractionation Factors
Applicability
The Oxygen Isotope Paleotemperature Scale
Factors Affecting Oxygen Isotope Paleotemperatures
Variations in �<sup>18</sup>O of Ocean Water in Space and Time
Vital Effects
Diagenesis
Ecology of the Organism
Applications of Oxygen Isotope Paleothermometry
The Quaternary
The Paleogene and Neogene (Cenozoic)
Older Samples
Application to Continental Carbonates
References
Carbon In The Low-Temperature Environment
Introduction
The Carbon Cycle
Carbon Isotope Budget of the Earth
Carbon Reservoirs
Mantle
Plants
Organic Carbon in Sediments
Methane
Atmospheric C<sup>2</sup>
�<sup>13</sup>C Values of Carbonates
Introduction
General Characterization of Carbonates
The Vital Effect
Carbonate Speciation Effects
Controls on the �<sup>13</sup>C Value of Marine Carbonates over Long Timescales
Variations in the �<sup>13</sup>C Value of Marine Carbonates at Short Timescales
�<sup>13</sup>C Studies of Terrestrial Carbonates
References
Low-Temperature Minerals, Exclusive Of Carbonates
Introduction
Phosphates
Analytical Techniques
Applications to Marine Paleothermometry
Application to Mammals: Theory
Sample Applications
Cherts
Application to Precambrian Chert Deposits
Application to Phanerozoic Cherts
Diagenesis
Application to Recent Sediments
Other Silica Applications
Clay Minerals
Early "Bulk" Sample Studies
Grain-Size Considerations
Iron Oxides
References
Nitrogen
Introduction
The Nitrogen Cycle
Nitrogen Isotope Fractionation
Nitrogen Fixation
Mineralization
Assimilation
Nitrification
Denitrification
The Characteristic �<sup>15</sup>N Values of Various Materials
Plants and Soil
Other Terrestrial Reservoirs
Nitrogen in the Oceans
Nitrogen Isotope Ratios in Animals
References
Sulfur
Introduction
Analytical Techniques
Equilibrium Fractionations and Geothermometry
Sulfate and Sulfide Formation at Low Temperatures: The Sedimentary Sulfur Cycle
Secular Variations in Sulfur
Long-Term Variations
Alternative Approaches: Barite and Trace Carbonates
Time Boundaries
Archean Sulfates: Clues to the Early Atmosphere
Sulfur Isotope Anomalies: Mass-Independent Fractionation
Sulfur Isotope Ratios in the Terrestrial Environment
Oxygen Isotope Variations in Sulfates
References
Igneous Petrology
Introduction
The Mantle
Oxygen
Carbon
Nitrogen
Hydrogen
Sulfur
Emplacement of Plutonic Rocks: Interactions with the Crust and Hydrosphere
Normal Igneous Rocks
Shallow-Level Hydrothermal Alteration by Meteoric Water: Low Plutonic Rocks
High;�<sup>18</sup>O Igneous Rocks
Calculating Fluid/Rock Ratios
Other Processes: Degassing, Assimilation, and Fractional Crystallization
Magmatic Volatiles
Assimilation;Fractional Crystallization (AFC) Processes
References
Metamorphic Geology
Introduction
Stable Isotopes as Geochemical Tracers
Closed System: Protolith Identification and Alteration
Open Systems: Volatilization and Fluid Infiltration Processes
Fluid Sources and Fluid;Rock Interaction
Oxygen and Hydrogen
Carbon
Sulfur
Scales of Equilibration During Metamorphism
Regional-Scale Exchange
Localized Exchange
Quantifying Fluid;Rock Ratios and Fluid Fluxes
Simple Mixing Models: Zero-Dimensional Water;Rock Interaction Models
One-Dimensional (Directional) Water;Rock Interaction Models
Thermometry
Introduction
Oxygen Isotope Thermometry in Metamorphic Rocks: Testing for 1in TEXT-INDENT: 27pt Equilibrium
Applications of Stable Isotope Thermometry
Retrograde Exchange: "Geospeedometry"
State of the Art
References
Extraterrestrial Materials
Introduction
Classification of Meteorites
Oxygen Isotope Variations in Meteorites
Introduction
Discovery of an <sup>17</sup>O Anomaly
Possible Explanations: Mixing of Two Distinct Reservoirs
Mass-Independent Fractionation
Hydrogen
Introduction
Meteorites
Carbon
Nitrogen
References
Standard Reference Materials for Stable Isotopes
Sample Calculation of the Correction Procedure for Adjusting Measured Isotope Data to Accepted IAEA Reference Scales
Index
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