Human Osteology

ISBN-10: 012746610X
ISBN-13: 9780127466101
Edition: 1st 1991
List price: $77.00
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Description: Human Osteology is designed for students and professionals who wish to advance their osteological skills. It will assist in accurately identifying human skeletal remains, however isolated and fragmentary. These remains can then be used to deduce  More...

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Book details

List price: $77.00
Edition: 1st
Copyright year: 1991
Publisher: Elsevier Science & Technology Books
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 455
Size: 9.00" wide x 11.50" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 3.784
Language: English

Human Osteology is designed for students and professionals who wish to advance their osteological skills. It will assist in accurately identifying human skeletal remains, however isolated and fragmentary. These remains can then be used to deduce information about the original lives of the deceased individuals. Human Osteology will be the essential text for courses on the human skeleton as well as a basic reference and field manual for professional osteologists and anatomists, forensic scientists, paleontologists and archaeologists. n Extensively illustrated with more than 500 exceptional photographs and drawings specifically designed to show a maximum amount of anatomical information n All skeletal parts are shown life-size for ease of study and use n Emphasizes the correct and positive identification of human bones and teeth, which is fundamental in paleontology, archaeology, and forensic science n Presents and emphasizes the basics while also providing access to the whole range of modern science involving the skeleton n Based on fifteen years of teaching human osteology

Preface to the Second Edition
Preface to the First Edition
Introduction
Human Osteology
A Guide to the Text
Teaching Osteology
Resources for the Osteologist
Studying Osteology
Working with Human Bones
Suggested Further Readings
Bone Biology
Variation
A Few Facts about Bone
Bones as Elements of the Musculoskeletal System
Gross Anatomy of Bones
Molecular Structure of Bone
Histology and Metabolism of Bone
Bone Growth
Morphogenesis
Bone Repair
Suggested Further Readings
Anatomical Terminology
Planes of Reference
Directional Terms
General
Teeth
Hands and Feet
Motions of the Body
General
Hands and Feet
General Bone Features
Projections and Parts
Depressions
Suggested Further Readings
Skull
Handling the Skull
Elements of the Skull
Growth and Architecture, Sutures and Sinuses
Skull Orientation
Cranial Osteometric Points
Unpaired (Midline) Cranial Osteometric Points
Paired Cranial Osteometric Points
Learning Cranial Skeletal Anatomy
Frontal
Anatomy
Growth
Possible Confusion
Siding
Parietals
Anatomy
Growth
Possible Confusion
Siding
Temporals
Anatomy
Growth
Possible Confusion
Siding
Auditory Ossicles
Occipital
Anatomy
Growth
Possible Confusion
Siding
Maxillae
Anatomy
Growth
Possible Confusion
Siding
Palatines
Anatomy
Growth
Possible Confusion
Siding
Vomer
Anatomy
Growth
Possible Confusion
Siding
Inferior Nasal Conchae
Anatomy
Growth
Possible Confusion
Siding
Ethmoid
Anatomy
Growth
Possible Confusion
Siding
Lacrimals
Anatomy
Growth
Possible Confusion
Siding
Nasals
Anatomy
Growth
Possible Confusion
Siding
Zygomatics
Anatomy
Growth
Possible Confusion
Siding
Sphenoid
Anatomy
Growth
Possible Confusion
Siding
Mandible
Anatomy
Growth
Possible Confusion
Siding
Mastication
Suggested Further Readings
Dentition
Dental Form and Function
Dental Terminology
Anatomy of a Tooth
Dental Development
Tooth Identification
To Which Tooth Category (Class) Does the Specimen Belong?
Incisors
Canines
Premolars
Molars
Is the Tooth Permanent or Deciduous?
Diagnostic Criteria
Special Cases
Is the Tooth an Upper or a Lower?
Upper versus Lower Incisors
Upper versus Lower Canines
Upper versus Lower Premolars
Upper versus Lower Molars
Where in the Arch Is the Tooth Located?
Upper Incisors: I[superscript 1] versus I[superscript 2]
Lower Incisors: I[subscript 1] versus I[subscript 2]
Upper Premolars: P[superscript 3] versus P[superscript 4]
Lower Premolars: P[subscript 3] versus P[subscript 4]
Upper Molars: M[superscript 1] versus M[superscript 2] versus M[superscript 3]
Lower Molars: M[subscript 1] versus M[subscript 2] versus M[subscript 3]
Is the Tooth from the Right or the Left Side?
Upper Incisors
Lower Incisors
Upper Canines
Lower Canines
Upper Premolars
Lower Premolars
Upper Molars
Lower Molars
Suggested Further Readings
Hyoid and Vertebrae
Hyoid
Anatomy
Growth
Possible Confusion
Siding
General Characteristics of Vertebrae
Anatomy
Growth
Cervical Vertebrae (n=7)
Identification
Special Cervical Vertebrae
Siding
Thoracic Vertebrae (n=12)
Identification
Special Thoracic Vertebrae
Siding
Lumbar Vertebrae (n=5)
Identification
Identifying Lumbar Position
Siding
Functional Aspects of the Vertebrae
Thorax: Sternum and Ribs
Sternum
Anatomy
Growth
Possible Confusion
Siding
Ribs
Anatomy
Special Ribs
Growth
Possible Confusion
Siding
Functional Aspects of the Thoracic Skeleton
Shoulder Girdle: Clavicle and Scapula
Clavicle
Anatomy
Growth
Possible Confusion
Siding
Scapula
Anatomy
Growth
Possible Confusion
Siding
Functional Aspects of the Shoulder Girdle
Arm: Humerus, Radius, and Ulna
Humerus
Anatomy
Growth
Possible Confusion
Siding
Radius
Anatomy
Growth
Possible Confusion
Siding
Ulna
Anatomy
Growth
Possible Confusion
Siding
Functional Aspects of the Elbow and Wrist
Hand: Carpals, Metacarpals, and Phalanges
Carpals
Scaphoid
Lunate
Triquetral
Pisiform
Trapezium (Greater Multangular)
Trapezoid (Lesser Multangular)
Capitate
Hamate
Growth
Possible Confusion
Metacarpals
First Metacarpal (Thumb)
Second Metacarpal
Third Metacarpal
Fourth Metacarpal
Fifth Metacarpal
Growth
Possible Confusion
Siding
Hand Phalanges
Proximal Hand Phalanges
Intermediate Hand Phalanges
Distal Hand Phalanges
Growth
Possible Confusion
Siding
Functional Aspects of the Hand
Pelvic Girdle: Sacrum, Coccyx, and Os Coxae
Sacrum
Anatomy
Growth
Possible Confusion
Siding
Coccyx
Os Coxae
Anatomy
Growth
Possible Confusion
Siding
Functional Aspects of the Pelvic Girdle
Leg: Femur, Patella, Tibia, and Fibula
Femur
Anatomy
Growth
Possible Confusion
Siding
Patella
Anatomy
Growth
Possible Confusion
Siding
Tibia
Anatomy
Growth
Possible Confusion
Siding
Fibula
Anatomy
Growth
Possible Confusion
Siding
Functional Aspects of the Knee and Ankle
Foot: Tarsals, Metatarsals, and Phalanges
Tarsals
Talus
Calcaneus
Cuboid
Navicular
Medial (First) Cuneiform
Intermediate (Second) Cuneiform
Lateral (Third) Cuneiform
Growth
Possible Confusion
Metatarsals
First Metatarsal
Second Metatarsal
Third Metatarsal
Fourth Metatarsal
Fifth Metatarsal
Growth
Possible Confusion
Siding
Foot Phalanges
Proximal Foot Phalanges
Intermediate Foot Phalanges
Distal Foot Phalanges
Growth
Possible Confusion
Siding
Functional Aspects of the Foot
Recovery, Preparation, and Curation of Skeletal Remains
Search
Discovery
Excavation and Retrieval
Transport
Sorting
Preparation
Preservation
Restoration
Molding and Casting
Curation
Suggested Further Readings
Analysis and Reporting of Skeletal Remains
Analysis
Setting
Metric Analysis
Photography
Equipment
Film and Exposure
Lighting and Setup
Radiography
Microscopy
Computing
Reporting
Suggested Further Readings
Ethics in Osteology
Ethics in Forensic Osteology
Boundaries of Evidence
The Expert Witness
Ethics in Archeological Osteology
Ethics in Collision
NAGPRA and Its Effects
The Future
Ethics in Human Paleontology
Suggested Further Readings
Assessment of Age, Sex, Stature, Ancestry, and Identity
Accuracy and Precision of Estimation
From Known to Unknown
Estimation of Age
Estimating Subadult Age from the Dentition
Estimating Adult Age from the Dentition
Estimating Adult Age from Cranial Suture Closure
Estimating Subadult Age from Long-Bone Length
Estimating Subadult Age from Epiphyseal Closure
Estimating Adult Age from the Public Symphysis Surface
Parturition Changes at the Public Symphysis
Estimating Adult Age from the Ilium's Auricular Surface
Estimating Adult Age from the Sternal Rib End
Estimating Adult Age by Radiographic Analysis
Estimating Adult Age by Using Bone Microstructure
Multifactorial Age Estimation
Determination of Sex
Sexing the Skull and Dentition
Sexing the Postcranial Skeleton
Estimation of Stature
Estimation of Ancestry
Identifying the Individual
Suggested Further Readings
Osteological and Dental Pathology
Trauma
Fracture
Dislocation
Artificial Deformation
Trephination and Amputation
Infectious Diseases and Associated Manifestations
Osteomyelitis
Periostitis
Tuberculosis
Treponemal Infections
Circulatory Disturbances and Hematopoietic Disorders
Metabolic and Hormonal Imbalance
Scurvy
Rickets
Osteoporosis
Endocrine Disturbances and Dysplasias
Tumors
Arthritis
Osteoarthritis
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Ankylosing Spondylitis
Dental Pathology
Caries
Dental Hypoplasia
Periodontal Disease
Dental Calculus
Artificial Dental Modification
Occupation
Suggested Further Readings
Postmortem Skeletal Modification
Bone Fracture
Bone Modification by Physical Agents
Chemistry
Rock, Earth, and Ice
Abrasion
Fire
Bone Modification by Nonhuman Biological Agents
Nonhuman Animal
Plant
Bone Modification by Humans
Cutmarks, Chopmarks, and Scrapemarks
Percussion Marks
Suggested Further Readings
The Biology of Skeletal Populations: Discrete Traits, Distance, Diet, Disease, and Demography
Discrete Traits
Dental Nonmetric Variation
Cranial Nonmetric Variation
Postcranial Nonmetric Variation
Measuring Biological Distance
Diet
Disease and Demography
Suggested Further Readings
Molecular Osteology
Sampling
DNA
PCR and Methodology
Contamination
Taphonomy of DNA
Applications
Amino Acids
Isotopic Osteology
Suggested Further Readings
Forensic Case Study: Homicide: "We Have the Witnesses but No Body"
A Disappearance in Cleveland
Investigation
Inventory
Identification
Conclusion
Forensic Case Study: Child Abuse, the Skeletal Perspective
Child Abuse and the Skeleton
A Missing Child Found
The Analysis
The Result
Archeological Case Study: The Bioarcheology of the Stillwater Marsh, Nevada
Background
Geography of the Carson Sink
Exposure and Recovery
Analysis
Affinity
Osteoarthritis
Limb Shaft Cross-Sectional Anatomy
Physiological Stress
Dietary Reconstruction
The Future
Archeological Case Study: Anasazi Remains from Cottonwood Canyon
Cannibalism and Archeology
Cottonwood Canyon Site 42SA12209
Discovery
Analysis
Patterns of Damage
Sorting and Refitting
Minimum Number, Age, and Sex of the Individuals
What Happened? The Osteological Contribution
Paleontological Case Study: The Pit of the Bones
Atapuerca
Discovery
Recovery
Paleodemography
Paleopathology
Functional and Phylogenetic Assessment
Continuing Mysteries
Paleontological Case Study: Australopithecus Mandible from Maka, Ethiopia
Historical Background
The Geography and Geology of Maka
Search and Discovery
Collection
Restoration
Photography and Casting
Analysis
Publication
Photographic Methods and Provenance
Methods
Preparation of the Bone
Equipment
Lighting and Staging
Film and Development
Provenance
Chapter 2
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapters 6-13
Chapter 17
Chapter 18
Chapter 19
Chapter 20
Glossary
Bibliography
Index

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