Environmental Soil Chemistry

ISBN-10: 0126564469
ISBN-13: 9780126564464
Edition: 2nd 2002 (Revised)
Authors: Donald L. Sparks
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Description: Illustrates fundamental principles of soil chemistry with respect to environmental reactions between soils and other natural materials and heavy metals, pesticides, industrial contaminants, acid rain, and salts.

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Book details

List price: $78.95
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2002
Publisher: Elsevier Science & Technology Books
Publication date: 11/1/2002
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 352
Size: 7.00" wide x 10.00" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.936
Language: English

Illustrates fundamental principles of soil chemistry with respect to environmental reactions between soils and other natural materials and heavy metals, pesticides, industrial contaminants, acid rain, and salts.

Donald L. Sparks is the S. Hallock du Pont Chair in Soil and Environmental Chemistry, Francis Alison Professor and Director of the Delaware Environmental Institute at the University of Delaware. He is internationally recognized for his landmark research on the kinetics and mechanisms of metal/oxyanion/nutrient reactions at biogeochemical interfaces. His pioneering studies on kinetic processes in soils and minerals include the development of widely used and novel kinetic methods, elucidation of rate-limiting steps and mechanisms over a range of spatial and temporal scales, and coupling of real-time kinetic studies with in-situ molecular scale investigations. His discoveries on the speciation, formation rates and stability mechanisms of metal hydroxide surface precipitates, and their role in the retention and bioavailability of toxic metals in the terrestrial environment, have received worldwide attention. This research has led to more effective soil remediation strategies and predictive models. He is the author or coauthor of 286 publications. These include: 11 edited books, 53 book chapters, and 219 refereed papers. He is the author of two widely adopted textbooks, Kinetics of Soil Chemical Processes and Environmental Soil Chemistry (two editions) published by Academic Press. Dr. Sparks is an ISI Highly Cited Researcher; his research has been cited more than 8380 times and his h-index is 53 (Web of Science). Dr. Sparks has served as editor of Advances in Agronomy since 1991, having edited 77 volumes. He has given over 200 invited presentations at scientific conferences throughout the world, and been a lecturer at 98 universities and institutes in North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia. He has received numerous honors and awards including Fellow of five scientific societies, national and international research awards, distinguished fellowships and lectureships, and teaching and mentoring awards. He has advised 90 graduate students and postdoctoral researchers and been the recipient of more than $50 million in research funding. He served as President of both the Soil Science Society of America and the International Union of Soil Sciences.

Preface
Environmental Soil Chemistry: an Overview
Evolution of Soil Chemistry
The Modern Environmental Movement
Contaminants in Waters and Soils
Case Study of Pollution of Soils and Waters
Soil Decontamination
Suggested Reading
Inorganic Soil Components
Introduction
Pauling's Rules
Primary Soil Minerals
Secondary Soil Minerals
Specific Surface of Soil Minerals
Surface Charge of Soil Minerals
Identification of Minerals by X-Ray Diffraction Analyses
Use of Clay Minerals to Retain Organic Contaminants
Suggested Reading
Chemistry of Soil Organic Matter
Introduction
Effects of Soil Formation Factors on SOM Contents
Composition of SOM
Fractionation of SOM
SOM Structure
Functional Groups and Charge Characteristics
Humic Substance-Metal Interactions
SOM-Clay Complexes
Retention of Pesticides and Other Organic Substances by Humic Substances
Suggested Reading
Soil Solution-Solid Phase Equilibria
Introduction
Measurement of the Soil Solution
Speciation of the Soil Solution
Ion Activity and Activity Coefficients
Dissolution and Solubility Processes
Suggested Reading
Sorption Phenomena on Soils
Introduction and Terminology
Surface Functional Groups
Surface Complexes
Adsorption Isotherms
Equilibrium-Based Adsorption Models
Surface Precipitation
Sorption of Metal Cations
Sorption of Anions
Points of Zero Charge
Desorption
Use of Spectroscopic and Microscopic Methods in Determining Mechanisms for Sorption-Desorption Phenomena
Suggested Reading
Ion Exchange Processes
Introduction
Characteristics of Ion Exchange
Cation Exchange Equilibrium Constants and Selectivity Coefficients
Thermodynamics of Ion Exchange
Relationship between Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Ion Exchange
Suggested Reading
Kinetics of Soil Chemical Processes
Rate-Limiting Steps and Time Scales of Soil Chemical Reactions
Rate Laws
Determination of Reaction Order and Rate Constants
Kinetic Models
Kinetic Methodologies
Effect of Temperature on Reaction Rates
Kinetics of Important Soil Chemical Processes
Suggested Reading
Redox Chemistry of Soils
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions and Potentials
Eh vs pH and pe vs pH Diagrams
Measurement and Use of Redox Potentials
Submerged Soils
Redox Reactions Involving Inorganic and Organic Pollutants
Suggested Reading
The Chemistry of Soil Acidity
Introduction
Historical Perspective of Soil Acidity
Solution Chemistry of Aluminum
Exchangeable and Nonexchangeable Aluminum
Soil Acidity
Liming Soils
Suggested Reading
The Chemistry of Saline and Sodic Soils
Introduction
Causes of Soil Salinity
Sources of Soluble Salts
Important Salinity and Sodicity Parameters
Classification and Reclamation of Saline and Sodic Soils
Effects of Soil Salinity and Sodicity on Soil Structural Properties
Effects of Soil Salinity on Plant Growth
Suggested Reading
Appendix A
Appendix B
References
Index

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