Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation

ISBN-10: 0124514510

ISBN-13: 9780124514515

Edition: 2nd 2002 (Revised)

Authors: K. N. Liou
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Description: This edition addresses the changes in the field of atmospheric radiation over the last 20 years. It includes contemporary subjects and applications of the science together with the original physics and maths needed to ensure a solid grounding.

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Book details

List price: $118.00
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2002
Publisher: Elsevier Science & Technology Books
Publication date: 4/29/2002
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 583
Size: 6.00" wide x 9.00" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 2.464
Language: English

Preface
Fundamentals of Radiation for Atmospheric Applications
Concepts, Definitions, and Units
Electromagnetic Spectrum
Solid Angle
Basic Radiometric Quantities
Concepts of Scattering and Absorption
Blackbody Radiation Laws
Planck's Law
Stefan-Boltzmann Law
Wien's Displacement Law
Kirchhoff's Law
Absorption Line Formation and Line Shape
Line Formation
Bohr's Model
Vibrational and Rotational Transitions
Line Broadening
Pressure Broadening
Doppler Broadening
Voigt Profile
Breakdown of Thermodynamic Equilibrium
Introduction to Radiative Transfer
The Equation of Radiative Transfer
Beer-Bouguer-Lambert Law
Schwarzschild's Equation and Its Solution
The Equation of Radiative Transfer for Plane-Parallel Atmospheres
Radiative Transfer Equations for Three-Dimensional Inhomogeneous Media
Exercises
Suggested Reading
Solar Radiation at the Top of the Atmosphere
The Sun as an Energy Source
The Structure of the Sun
Solar Surface Activity: Sunspots
The Earth's Orbit about the Sun and Solar Insolation
Orbital Geometry
Definition of the Solar Constant
Distribution of Solar Insolation
Solar Spectrum and Solar Constant Determination
Solar Spectrum
Determination of the Solar Constant: Ground-Based Method
Satellite Measurements of the Solar Constant
Exercises
Suggested Reading
Absorption and Scattering of Solar Radiation in the Atmosphere
Composition and Structure of the Earth's Atmosphere
Thermal Structure
Chemical Composition
Atmospheric Absorption
Absorption in the Ultraviolet
Molecular Nitrogen
Molecular Oxygen
Ozone
Other Minor Gases
Absorption of Solar Radiation
Photochemical Processes and the Formation of Ozone Layers
Absorption in the Visible and Near Infrared
Molecular Oxygen and Ozone
Water Vapor
Carbon Dioxide
Other Minor Gases
Transfer of Direct Solar Flux in the Atmosphere
Atmospheric Scattering
Rayleigh Scattering
Theoretical Development
Phase Function, Scattering Cross Section, and Polarizability
Blue Sky and Sky Polarization
Light Scattering by Particulates: Approximations
Lorenz-Mie Scattering
Geometric Optics
Anomalous Diffraction Theory
Multiple Scattering and Absorption in Planetary Atmospheres
Fundamentals of Radiative Transfer
Approximations of Radiative Transfer
Single-Scattering Approximation
Diffusion Approximation
Atmospheric Solar Heating Rates
Exercises
Suggested Reading
Thermal Infrared Radiation Transfer in the Atmosphere
The Thermal Infrared Spectrum and the Greenhouse Effect
Absorption and Emission in the Atmosphere
Absorption in the Thermal Infrared
Water Vapor
Carbon Dioxide
Ozone
Methane
Nitrous Oxide
Chlorofluorocarbons
Fundamentals of Thermal Infrared Radiative Transfer
Line-by-Line (LBL) Integration
Correlated K-Distribution Method for Infrared Radiative Transfer
Fundamentals
Application to Nonhomogeneous Atmospheres
Numerical Procedures and Pertinent Results
Line Overlap Consideration
Band Models
A Single Line
Regular Band Model
Statistical Band Model
Application to Nonhomogeneous Atmospheres
Broadband Approaches to Flux Computations
Broadband Emissivity
Newtonian Cooling Approximation
Infrared Radiative Transfer in Cloudy Atmospheres
Fundamentals
Exchange of Infrared Radiation between Cloud and Surface
Two/Four-Stream Approximation
Atmospheric Infrared Cooling Rates
Exercises
Suggested Reading
Light Scattering by Atmospheric Particulates
Morphology of Atmospheric Particulates
Lorenz-Mie Theory of Light Scattering by Spherical Particles
Electromagnetic Wave Equation and Solution
Formal Scattering Solution
The Far-Field Solution and Extinction Parameters
Scattering Phase Matrix for Spherical Particles
Geometric Optics
Diffraction
Geometric Reflection and Refraction
Geometric Optics, Lorenz-Mie Theory, and Representative Results
Light Scattering by Ice Crystals: A Unified Theory
Geometric Optics for Ice Crystals
Conventional Approach
Improved Geometric Optics Approach
Absorption Effects in Geometric Optics
Monte Carlo Method for Ray Tracing
Introduction to the Finite-Difference Time Domain Method
Scattering Phase Matrix for Nonspherical Ice Particles
Presentation of a Unified Theory for Light Scattering by Ice Crystals
The Essence of the Unified Theory
Theory versus Measurement and Representative Results
Light Scattering by Nonspherical Aerosols
Finite-Difference Time Domain Method
T-Matrix Method
Note on Light-Scattering Measurements for Nonspherical Aerosols
Exercises
Suggested Reading
Principles of Radiative Transfer in Planetary Atmospheres
Introduction
A Brief History of Radiative Transfer
Basic Equations for the Plane-Parallel Condition
Discrete-Ordinates Method for Radiative Transfer
General Solution for Isotropic Scattering
The Law of Diffuse Reflection for Semi-infinite Isotropic Scattering Atmospheres
General Solution for Anisotropic Scattering
Application to Nonhomogeneous Atmospheres
Principles of Invariance
Definitions of Scattering Parameters
Principles of Invariance for Semi-infinite Atmospheres
Principles of Invariance for Finite Atmospheres
The X and Y Functions
Inclusion of Surface Reflection
Adding Method for Radiative Transfer
Definitions of Physical Parameters
Adding Equations
Equivalence of the Adding Method and the Principles of Invariance
Extension to Nonhomogeneous Atmospheres for Internal Fields
Similarity between the Adding and Discrete-Ordinates Methods
Approximations for Radiative Transfer
Successive-Orders-of-Scattering Approximation
Two-Stream and Eddington's Approximations
Delta-Function Adjustment and Similarity Principle
Four-Stream Approximation
Radiative Transfer Including Polarization
Representation of a Light Beam
Formulation
Advanced Topics in Radiative Transfer
Horizontally Oriented Ice Particles
Three-Dimensional Nonhomogeneous Clouds
Monte Carlo Method
Successive-Orders-of-Scattering (SOS) Approach
Delta Four-Term (Diffusion) Approximation
Spherical Atmospheres
Exercises
Suggested Reading
Application of Radiative Transfer Principles to Remote Sensing
Introduction
Remote Sensing Using Transmitted Sunlight
Determination of Aerosol Optical Depth and Size Distribution
Direct Linear Inversion
Constrained Linear Inversion
Determination of Total Ozone Concentration
Limb Extinction Technique
Remote Sensing Using Reflected Sunlight
Satellite-Sun Geometry and Theoretical Foundation
Satellite Remote Sensing of Ozone
Satellite Remote Sensing of Aerosols
Satellite Remote Sensing of Land Surfaces
Cloud Optical Depth and Particle Size
Bidirectional Reflectance
Polarization
Reflected Line Spectrum
Remote Sensing Using Emitted Infrared Radiation
Theoretical Foundation
Surface Temperature Determination
Remote Sensing of Temperature Profiles
Nonlinear Iteration Method
Minimum Variance Method: Hybrid Retrieval
Cloud Removal
Remote Sensing of Water Vapor and Trace Gas Profiles
Water Vapor from the 6.3 [mu]m Vibrational-Rotational Band
Limb Scanning Technique
Infrared Remote Sensing of Clouds
Carbon Dioxide Slicing Technique for Cloud Top Pressure and Emissivity
Emitted Radiance for Cloud Cover
Retrieval of Cirrus Cloud Optical Depth and Temperature
Information Content in Infrared Line Spectrum
Remote Sensing of Infrared Cooling Rate and Surface Flux
Remote Sensing Using Emitted Microwave Radiation
Microwave Spectrum and Microwave Radiative Transfer
Rainfall Rate and Water Vapor Determination from Microwave Emission
Temperature Retrieval from Microwave Sounders
Remote Sensing Using Laser and Microwave Energy
Backscattering Equation: Theoretical Foundation
Lidar Differential Absorption and Depolarization Techniques
Differential Absorption Technique
Principle of Depolarization
Millimeter-Wave Radar for Cloud Study
Exercises
Suggested Reading
Radiation and Climate
Introduction
Radiation Budget of the Earth-Atmosphere System
Observational Considerations
Black and White Sensors Based on Radiative Equilibrium
Scanning Radiometer and Angular Models
Radiation Budget Viewed from Space
Cloud Radiative Forcing Derived from ERB Data
Radiative Heating/Cooling Rates of the Atmosphere
Radiation Budget at the Surface
Radiative and Convective Atmospheres
Radiative Equilibrium
A Global Model
A Vertical Model
Radiative and Convective Equilibrium
Heat Budget of the Earth-Atmosphere System
Convective Adjustment
Radiation in One-Dimensional Climate Models
Carbon Dioxide Greenhouse Effects
Ozone and Other Greenhouse Gases
Ozone
Methane
Nitrous Oxide
Halocarbons
Radiation Feedback Consideration
Aerosols and Radiation
Cloud Radiative Forcing
Cloud Position and Cover
Cloud Microphysics
Aerosols/Clouds and Precipitation
Radiation in Energy Balance Climate Models
Energy Budget of the Atmosphere and the Surface
Atmosphere and Oceans
Surface Energy Budget
Radiative Forcing in Energy Balance Climate Models
Linear Heating Approach
Diffusion Approach
Solar Insolation Perturbation
Radiation in Global Climate Models
An Introduction to General Circulation Modeling
Cloud Radiative Forcing in Global Climate Models
Internal Radiative Forcing
Greenhouse Warming and Cloud Cover Feedback
Greenhouse Warming and Cloud Liquid/Ice Water Content Feedback
Cloud Particle Size Feedback
Direct Radiative Forcing: Aerosols and Contrails
Aerosols
Contrails
Radiation in El Nino-Southern Oscillation
Exercises
Suggested Reading
Derivation of the Planck Function
The Schrodinger Wave Equation
Spherical Geometry
Complex Index of Refraction, Dispersion of Light, and Lorentz-Lorenz Formula
Properties of the Legendre Polynomials and Addition Theorem
Some Useful Constants
Standard Atmospheric Profiles
Answers to Selected Exercises
References
Index
Previous Volumes in International Geophysics Series
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