Groundwater Science

ISBN-10: 0122578554

ISBN-13: 9780122578557

Edition: 2002

Authors: Charles R. Fitts

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Description:

This title is a presentation of groundwater hydrology that integrates chemistry, physics, geology and calculus. With the input of students and other hydrology instructors, the author has developed a text reference that gives an explanation of concepts and quantitative analyses.
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Book details

List price: $101.00
Copyright year: 2002
Publisher: Elsevier Science & Technology Books
Publication date: 6/5/2002
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 450
Size: 7.75" wide x 9.75" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 3.080
Language: English

Preface
Groundwater: the Big Picture
Introduction
Global Water Reservoirs and Fluxes
Terminology for Subsurface Waters
Fluxes Affecting Groundwater
Infiltration and Recharge
Evapotranspiration
Groundwater Discharge to Surface Water Bodies
Pumping
Hydrologic Balance
Water and Groundwater Use
What Groundwater Scientists Do
Problems
Physical Properties
Introduction
Properties of Water
Density and Compressibility
Viscosity
Surface Tension and Capillarity
Properties of Air
Properties of Porous Media
Porosity
Grain Size
Volumetric Water Content and Bulk Density
Energy and Hydraulic Head
Hydrostatics
Measuring Hydraulic Head with Wells and Piezometers
Problems
Principles of Flow
Introduction
Darcy's Law and Hydraulic Conductivity
Specific Discharge and Average Linear Velocity
Darcy's Law in Three Dimensions
Intrinsic Permeability and Conductivity of Other Fluids
Limits on the Application of Darcy's Law
The Continuum Assumption
Laminar and Turbulent Flow
Heterogeneity and Anisotropy of Hydraulic Conductivity
Estimating Average Hydraulic Conductivities
Transmissivity
Measuring Hydraulic Conductivity
Correlations of Grain Size to Hydraulic Conductivity
Laboratory Hydraulic Conductivity Tests
Slug Tests
Pumping Tests
Tracer Tests
Modeling Natural Systems
Flow in Fractured Rock
Unsaturated Flow
Water Content and Pressure
Measuring Pressures below Atmospheric
Water Content, Hydraulic Conductivity, and Darcy's Law
Flow of Groundwater with Variable Density
Fresh-Salt Water Interfaces in Coastal Aquifers
Problems
Geology and Groundwater Flow
Introduction
Exploring the Subsurface
Excavation
Direct-Push Probes
Drilling
Well Construction
Resistivity, Electromagnetic, and Radar Surveys
Seismic Refraction Surveys
Borehole Logging
General Patterns of Groundwater Flow
Aquifers and Confining Layers
Recharge and Discharge
Water Table and Potentiometric Surface Maps
Interaction of Groundwater and Surface Water
Crustal-Scale Pore Fluid Flow
Groundwater in Unconsolidated Deposits
The High Plains Aquifer
New Jersey Coastal Plain
Western Cape Cod Glacial Deposits
Groundwater in Sedimentary Rocks
The Dakota Sandstone Aquifer
Karst at Mammoth Cave, Kentucky
Groundwater in Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks
Columbia Plateau Basalts, Northwest U.S.
Frozen Ground and Permafrost
Problems
Deformation, Storage, and General Flow Equations
Introduction
Effective Stress
Atmospheric Pressure Fluctuations
Excavation Instability and Liquefaction
Slope Instability
Vaiont Reservoir Slide
Earthquakes and Groundwater Pressures
Matrix Compression
Subsidence in the San Joaquin Valley
Consolidation: Time-Dependent Compression
Pore Water Pressures in Sedimentary Basins
Changes in Subsurface Water Storage
Elastic Storage
Water Table Storage
General Flow Equations
Three-Dimensional Saturated Flow
Two-Dimensional Saturated Flow in Aquifers
Three-Dimensional Unsaturated Flow
Overview of Mathematical Modeling
Problems
Modeling Steady Flow with Basic Methods
Introduction
Aquifers with Uniform Transmissivity
Solution for Uniform Flow
Solution for Radial Flow to a Well
Solution for Uniform Recharge/Leakage
Estimating the Recharge/Transmissivity Ratio
Superposition
Capture Zone of a Well in Uniform Flow
Wells Near Straight Constant Head Boundaries
Wells Near Straight Impermeable Boundaries
Wells Near Circular Constant Head Boundaries
Analyzing the Long-Term Drawdown of Wells
Vertical Plane Flow
Flow Net Graphical Solutions
Boundary Conditions
Discharges
How to Draw Flow Nets
Anisotropic Systems
Deciding Whether to Use a One-, Two-, or Three-Dimensional Model
Unconfined Aquifers with a Horizontal Base
Solutions for Uniform Flow, Radial Flow, and Uniform Recharge
Superposition and Imaging
Problems
Modeling Transient Flow with Basic Methods
Introduction
Radial Flow in Aquifers with Uniform Transmissivity
The Theis Nonleaky Aquifer Solution
The Hantush-Jacob Solution for a Leaky Aquifer
The Neuman Solution for an Unconfined Aquifer
Pumping Test Analysis
Log-Log Curve Matching
Semi-Log Drawdown vs. Time
Pseudo-Steady Drawdown vs. Distance
Constant-Drawdown Variable Discharge Test
Additional Considerations for Pumping Tests
Superposition in Space--Multiple Wells and Aquifer Boundaries
Superposition in Time--Variable Pumping Rates at a Well
Partial Penetration and Hydraulics Near the Pumping Well
Problems
Computer-Assisted Flow Modeling
Introduction
Finite Difference Method
Finite Difference Equations
Boundary Conditions
Example Application
Finite Element Method
Finite Element Equations
Boundary Conditions
Analytic Element Method
Equations for Two-Dimensional Aquifer Flow
Common Elements
Example Application
Strengths and Limitations of These Methods
Model Calibration and Parameter Estimation
Interpreting Model Results
Problems
Groundwater Chemistry
Introduction
Molecular Properties of Water
Solute Concentration Units
Natural Solutes
Inorganic Solutes
Electroneutrality
Presenting Inorganic Data Graphically
Organic Solutes
Chemical Reactions
Equilibrium
Activity and Effective Concentration
Reaction Rates and Deviation from Equilibrium
Mineral Dissolution and Precipitation
Gas-Water Partitioning
Aqueous-Phase Reactions
pH, Acids, and Bases
Carbonate Reactions and Alkalinity
Metal Complexes
Oxidation and Reduction
Biogeochemical Redox Reactions
Sorption
Surface Complexation of Ions
Nonpolar Organic Compounds
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes and Water Origins
Radioisotopes and Age Dating
Groundwater Records of Paleoclimate
Examples of Natural Groundwater Chemistry Processes
Floridan Aquifer: Regional Scale
Floridan Aquifer: Local Scale
Milk River Aquifer
Problems
Groundwater Contamination
Introduction
Contamination Sources
Leaking Storage Tanks
Septic Systems
Landfills
Others
Organic Contaminants
Overview of Migration Patterns
Structure and Occurrence of Common Contaminants
Properties of Common Contaminants
Nonaqueous-Phase Liquids
Saturation, and Wetting and Nonwetting Fluids
Interfacial Tension and Capillary Pressure
Capillary Pressure vs. Saturation and Residual Saturation
Relative Permeability and Flow of Multiple Phases
Solute Transport Processes
Advection and Mechanical Dispersion
Molecular Diffusion
Sorption
Colloid Transport
Case Studies of Solute Transport
CFB Borden, Ontario Tracer Test
North Carolina Gasoline and Diesel Spill
Modeling Solute Transport
Modeling Dispersion and Diffusion
General Equations for Nonreactive Solutes
General Equations for Reactive Solutes
Boundary Conditions
One-Dimensional Solution for a Step Inlet Source
Solution for a Pulse Point Source
Other More Complex Solutions
Investigating Contamination
Sampling Groundwater
Sampling Pore Gases
Electromagnetic Surveys
Investigating NAPLs
Remediating Contamination
Source Removal or Isolation
NAPL Recovery
Hydraulic Control of Solute Plumes
Soil Vapor Extraction
Bioremediation
Engineered In Situ Reaction Zones
Problems
Units and Conversions
Length [L]
Area [L[superscript 2]
Volume [L[superscript 3]
Time [T]
Mass [M] and Weight [ML/T[superscript 2] at Earth's Surface
Force [ML/T[superscript 2]
Pressure or Stress [M/LT[superscript 2]
Energy [ML[superscript 2]/T[superscript 2]
Power [ML[superscript 2]/T[superscript 3]
Angle
Temperature
Velocity and Hydraulic Conductivity [L/T]
Transmissivity [L[superscript 2]/T]
Discharge (Flow Rate) [L[superscript 3]/T]
Unit Prefixes
Performing Unit Conversions
Mathematics Primer
Algebra and Geometry
Functions of One Variable
Formulas for Common Derivatives
Functions of Two or More Variables
Book Internet Site
Answers to Selected Problems
References
Index
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