Principles of Environmental Geochemistry

ISBN-10: 0122290615

ISBN-13: 9780122290619

Edition: 2004

Authors: G. Nelson Eby

List price: $299.95
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Description:

The basic philosophy of PRINCIPLES OF ENVIRONMENTAL GEOCHEMISTRY is to present chemical principles that are essential for understanding environmental problems and then show how these principles can be applied to real-world problems. The latter goal is achieved by including a number of case studies in each chapter. The book is process oriented, emphasizing the tools needed to understand environmental problems, and is not a recitation of environmental problems and issues. Chemistry topics are developed from first principles and the focus is on those principles that are most useful in the environmental field. This text is more accessible than the larger, higher-level environmental geochemistry books on the market that assume familiarity with chemical and quantitative background material. The topical coverage is broad, including extensive material on the isotopic and mineralogical aspects of environmental issues and a significant chapter on the atmosphere. Case studies are integrated throughout to show the application of the various principles to real-world problems, and many of the very extensive set of end-of-chapter problems encourage students to become familiar with the scientific literature on this subject.
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Book details

List price: $299.95
Copyright year: 2004
Publisher: Brooks/Cole
Publication date: 3/5/2003
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 528
Size: 9.00" wide x 11.50" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 3.256
Language: English

Preface
Basic Principles
The Atom
The Bohr Atom
Beyond the Bohr Atom--Quantum Mechanics
Ionization and Valences
Spectra and Elemental Analysis
The Nucleus
Chemical Bonding
Atomic and Molecular Weights
Measurement of Concentration
Types of Chemical Reactions
Determining and Balancing a Chemical Equation
Gases
Structure and Properties of Water
Box Models and Geochemical Cycles
Questions and Problems
Equilibrium Thermodynamics and Kinetics
The Laws of Thermodynamics
First Law of Thermodynamics
Second Law of Thermodynamics
Equilibrium Thermodynamics
Free Energy
Chemical Potential
Activity and Fugacity
The Equilibrium Constant
Henry's Law
Free Energies at Temperatures Other than 25[degree]C
Le Chatelier's Principle
Calculation of Activity Coefficients
Debye-Huckel Model
Truesdell-Jones Model
Pitzer Model
Why Do We Care about Activity-Coefficient Models?
Calculation of Activity Coefficients for Uncharged Species
Activity of Water
Aqueous Complexes
Measurement of Disequilbrium
Kinetics
Order of Reactions
The Arrhenius Equation
Nucleation
Dissolution and Growth
Water-Chemistry Computer Models
Case Studies
Questions and Problems
Acid-Base Equilibria
Definition of Acids and Bases
Acids
Bases
The Dissociation of Water and pH
pH of Natural Waters
Strong Acids
Weak Acids
Salts of Weak Acids and Strong Bases
Strong Bases
Amphoteric Hydroxides
Acidity and Alkalinity
Acidity and Alkalinity Titrations
Buffers
Buffering Index for H2O
Buffering Index for a Weak Monoprotic Acid
Buffering Index for Weak Polyprotic Acids
Mineral-Water Reactions
Buffering Index for the Calcite-Carbonic Acid System
Buffering Index for Water-Silicate Mineral Systems
Buffering Capacities of Natural Waters
Mineral Reactivity
Acid-Base Equilibria Case Studies
Questions and Problems
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
Basic Principles
Electrochemical Cells
Electromotive Series
Electromotive Force
Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations
The Nernst Equation and Eh
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions and pe
Oxidation-Reduction Diagrams
Stability of Water
Constructing Eh-pH Diagrams
The Role of Microorganisms in Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
Microorganisms and Energy Pathways
Examples of Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Mediated by Microorganisms
Oxidation-Reduction Processes in Natural Systems
Redox Buffering
Classification of Oxidation-Reduction Environments
Oxidative and Reductive Capacity
Oxidation-Reduction Ladders
The Redox Interface
Questions and Problems
Carbon Chemistry
Basic Structures and Naming of Organic Compounds
Formulas
Isomers
Hydrocarbons
Naming and Types of Hydrocarbon Compounds
Functional Groups
Organohalide Compounds
Organooxygen Compounds
Organonitrogen Compounds
Organosulfur Compounds
Organophosphorus Compounds
Esters
Polymers
Carbon Compounds in the Environment
Natural Sources
Anthropogenic Sources
Humic Substances
Soil and Marine Organic Matter
Soil Organic Matter
Marine Organic Matter
Fossil Fuels
Coals
Petroleum
Natural Carbon Inputs to Surface and Ground Waters
Anthropogenic Carbon Inputs to Surface and Ground Waters
Organic Carbon
Pesticides
Dioxins, PCBs, and Dibenzofurans (DFs)
PAHs
NAPLs
Geochemical and Biochemical Processes That Control the Concentration of Organic Chemicals in Water
Sorption/Partition
Precipitation
Volatilization
Oxidation-Reduction
Biological Processes
Degradation Half-life
Questions and Problems
Isotopes
Radioactive Isotopes
Basic Principles
Tritium Dating
Carbon-14 Dating
U-series Disequilibrium Methods of Dating
Radiogenic Isotopic Tracers
Stable Isotopes
Basic Principles
Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotopes in Water
Carbon
Nitrogen
Sulfur
Mixing
Paleothermometry
Questions and Problems
Environmental Mineralogy
Basic Mineralogy
Definition of a Mineral
Types of Minerals
Crystal Chemistry
X-ray Crystallography
Basic Silicate Structures
Clay Minerals
Clay Mineral Structures
Ion-Exchange Properties--Origin
Ion-Exchange Properties--Determination
Zeolites
The Asbestos Minerals
Crystal Structures of Asbestos Minerals
Types of Asbestos and Their Uses
Health Effects of Asbestos Exposure
Crystalline and Amorphous Silica
Dissolution of Silica Minerals
Health Effects of Silica Exposure
Mineral-Microorganism Interactions
Questions and Problems
The Atmospheric Environment
Properties of the Earth's Atmosphere
Structure and Composition of the Atmosphere
Solar and Terrestrial Radiation
Atmospheric Circulation
Temperature and Water Vapor Variations
Air Pollution
Types of Air Pollutants
Aerosols
Smogs
Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change
Greenhouse Gases
Climate Change and the Geologic Record
Ozone
Stratospheric Ozone
Tropospheric Ozone
Radon
Rainwater Chemistry
Ionic Species
Gaseous Species
National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP)
pH of Rainwater and Acid Rain
Chemistry and Sources of Atmospheric Particulates (Aerosols)
Types of Particulates
Removal of Particulates from the Atmosphere
Particulate Sampling
Air Mass Trajectories
Source Identification and Apportionment
Temporal Variations in Particulate Compositions
Questions and Problems
The Continental Environment
The Hydrologic Cycle
Weathering
Dissolution and Precipitation of Silica
Dissolution and Precipitation of Aluminum and Iron Hydroxides
Stability Diagrams
Geochemistry of Surface and Ground Waters
Variations in River and Groundwater Chemistry
Rivers
Groundwaters
Lakes
pH of Surface and Ground Waters
Adsorption-Desorption Processes
Adsorption of Metal Cations
Colloids
Isotherms and Partitioning of Species
Ion Exchange
Adsorption and Contaminant Transport
Complex Formation and Chelation
Metals
Metal Cycles
Acid Drainage
Heavy Metals
Radioactive Isotopes and Radioactive Waste Disposal
Nonmetals
Carbon
Halogens
Nitrogen
Phosphorus
Sulfur
Questions and Problems
The Marine Environment
Physical Aspects of the Open Ocean
Vertical Structure of the Ocean
Oceanic Circulation
Constancy of Composition and Salinity
Chemical Composition of the Open Ocean
Residence Time of Seawater Species
The Global Chemical Cycle for Seawater Species
Processes Controlling Seawater Composition
Seawater Chemistry
Seawater Alkalinity and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC)
Seawater pH
Speciation and Stoichiometric Equilibrium Constants
Seawater Buffers and Buffering Capacity
Inorganic and Organic Ligands in Seawater
Trace Metals in Marine Colloids
Trace Metals in Seawater
Types of Metal Distributions
Determination of Scavenging Rates
Geochemistry of Marine Sediments
Distribution of Deep-Sea Sediments
Authigenesis in Marine Sediments
Age of Seafloor Sediments
Methane Hydrates
The Marginal Marine Environment
Estuaries
Water Circulation in Semi-Isolated Basins
Flushing Time
Water Column Chemistry
Pore Water Chemistry
Sediment Chemistry
Questions and Problems
References
Electronic Structure and Valences of the Elements
Standard State (298.15 K, 10[superscript 5] Pa) Thermodynamic Data
Ionic Radii in A for Different Charges and Coordination Numbers
Piper Diagram for Water Chemistry Problems
Answers to Selected Problems
Index
Credits
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