Fundamentals of Soil Ecology

ISBN-10: 0121797260
ISBN-13: 9780121797263
Edition: 2nd 2004 (Revised)
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Description: Written for ecologists and soil scientists this reference examines why soil is the organizing centre for all terrestrial ecosystems in terms of the physics, chemistry and biology of the soil ecosystem. Aspects of biodiversity and global carbon  More...

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Book details

List price: $67.95
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2004
Publisher: Elsevier Science & Technology Books
Publication date: 7/19/2004
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 408
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.00" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.430
Language: English

Written for ecologists and soil scientists this reference examines why soil is the organizing centre for all terrestrial ecosystems in terms of the physics, chemistry and biology of the soil ecosystem. Aspects of biodiversity and global carbon balance are also discussed.

David C. Colemanis Distinguished Research Professor Emeritus in the Odum School of Ecology at the University of Georgia. He is the author ofFundamentals of Soil Ecologyas well as many other books and articles.

Preface to the Second Edition
Preface to the First Edition
Historical Overview of Soils and the Fitness of the Soil Environment
The Historical Background of Soil Ecology
Water as a Constituent of Soil
Elemental Constitution of Soil
How Soils Are Formed
Profile Development
Soil Texture
Clay Mineral Structure
Soil Structure
Soils as Suppliers of Ecosystem Services
Summary
Primary Production Processes in Soils: Roots and Rhizosphere Associates
Introduction
The Primary Production Process
Methods of Sampling
Destructive Techniques
The Harvest Method
Isotope-Dilution Method
Root-Ingrowth Technique
Nondestructive Techniques
Additional Sources of Primary Production
Symbiotic Associates of Roots
Mycorrhizal Structure and Function
Ecosystem-Level Consequences of ECM Function
Actinorhiza
Carbon Allocation in the Root/Rhizosphere
Carbon Allocation Costs of Development and Maintenance of Symbiotic Associations with Roots
Future Directions for Research on Roots and Mycorrhizal Function and Biodiversity
Summary
Secondary Production: Activities of Heterotrophic Organisms--Microbes
Introduction
Compounds Being Decomposed
Microbial Activities in Relation to Catabolism in Soil Systems
Microbial Abundance and Distribution in Soil
Techniques for Measuring Microbial Communities
Direct Measures of Numbers and Biomass
Indirect Measures of Biomass
Chemical Methods
The Chloroform Fumigation and Incubation (CFI) Technique
The Chloroform Fumigation and Extraction (CFE) Technique
Physiological Methods: SIR Technique
Additional Physiological Methods of Measuring Microbial Activity
Enzyme Assays and Measures of Biological Activities in Soils
Direct Methods of Determining Soil Microbial Activity
Soil Sterilization and Partial Sterilization Techniques
Conceptual Models of Microbes in Soil Systems
Root-Rhizosphere Microbe Models and Experiments
Soil Aggregation Models
Models: Organism and Process-Oriented
Summary
Secondary Production: Activities of Heterotrophic Organisms--The Soil Fauna
Introduction
The Microfauna
Methods for Extracting and Counting Protozoa
Distribution of Protozoa in Soil Profiles
Impacts of Protozoa on Ecosystem Function
The Mesofauna
Rotifera
Features of Body Plan and General Ecology
Nematoda
Nematode Feeding Habits
Nematode Zones of Activity in Soil
Nematode Extraction Techniques
Tardigrada
Microarthropods
Collembola
Families of Collembola
Population Growth and Reproduction
Collembolan Feeding Habits
Collembolan Impacts on Soil Ecosystems
Acari (Mites)
Oribatid Mites
Abundance and Diversity of Oribatid Mites
Population Growth
Oribatid Feeding Habits
Oribatid Impacts on Soil Ecosystems
Prostigmatic Mites
Mesostigmatic Mites
Astigmatic Mites
Other Microarthropods
Protura
Diplura
Microcoryphia
Pseudoscorpionida
Symphyla
Pauropoda
Enchytraeidae
The Macrofauna
Macroarthropods
Importance of the Macroarthropods
Isopoda
Diplopoda
Chilopoda
Scorpionida
Araneae
Opiliones
Solifugae
Uropygi
The Pterygote Insects
Coleoptera
Hymenoptera
Diptera
Isoptera
Other Pterygota
Gastropoda
Sampling Techniques for Gastropods
Oligochaeta--Earthworms
Earthworm Distribution and Abundance
Biology and Ecology
Influence on Soil Processes
Earthworm Management
Earthworm Sampling and Identification
General Attributes of Fauna in Soil Systems
Faunal Feedbacks on Microbial Community Composition and Diversity
Summary
Decomposition and Nutrient Cycling
Introduction
Integrating Variables
Resource Quality, Climate, and Litter Breakdown
Dynamics of Litter Breakdown
Direct Measurement of Litter Breakdown
Patterns of Mass Loss During Decomposition
Effects of Fauna on Litter Breakdown Rates
Nutrient Movement During Decomposition
Nutrient Cycling Links in Soil Systems
Role of Soil Fauna in Organic Matter Dynamics and Nutrient Turnover
Faunal Impacts in Applied Ecology--Agroecosystems
Applied Ecology in Forested Ecosystems
Summary
Soil Food Webs: Detritivory and Microbivory in Soils
Introduction
Physiological Ecology of Soil Organisms
Energy Available for Detrital Food Chains and Webs
Arenas of Interest
A Hierarchical Approach to Organisms in Soils
Future Research Prospects
Summary
Soil Biodiversity and Linkages to Soil Processes
Introduction
Biodiversity in Soils and Its Impacts on Terrestrial Ecosystem Function
Heterogeneity of Carbon Substrates and Effects on Soil Biodiversity
Impacts of Species Richness on Ecosystem Function
Models, Microcosms, and Soil Biodiversity
Experimental Additions and Deletions in Soil Biodiversity Studies
Problems of Concern in Soil Biodiversity Studies
Why Is Soil Diversity So High?
Biogeographical Trends in Diversity of Soil Organisms
Future Developments in Soil Ecology
Introduction
Roles of Soils in Carbon Sequestration
Roles of Soils in the Global Carbon Cycle
Problems in Modeling Soil Carbon Dynamics
Biological Interactions in Soils and Global Change
Ecology of Invasive Species in Soil Systems: An Increasing Problem in Soil Ecology
Soils and "Gaia": Possible Mechanisms for Evolution of "the Fitness of the Soil Environment?"
Soil Ecology in the Third Millennium
Laboratory and Field Exercises in Soil Ecology
Introduction
Minirhizotron Studies
Principle
Description of a Minirhizotron
Installation of the Minirhizotrons
Observation and Recording
Getting Data from the Videotape
Tracing Technique
Automated Root Length Measures
Soil Respiration Studies
Principle
Materials and Supplies Needed
Procedure
Calculations
Litter Decomposition Studies
Principle
Litterbag Construction
Calculations
Analyses for Soil Microbial Biomass
The Chloroform-Fumigation K[subscript 2]SO[subscript 4]-Extraction Method
Principle
Preparation and Handling of Potassium Sulfate
Sample Preparation
Potassium Sulfate Extractions
Chloroform Fumigation
Chloroform Removal
Calculations
Sampling and Enumeration of Nematodes
Principle
Sampling Considerations
Sampling Tool and Precautions
Nematode Extraction: Baermann Funnel Method
Principle
Materials and Supplies Needed
Procedure
Killing and Fixing Nematodes with Hot and Cold Formalin (5%)
Materials and Supplies Needed
Procedure
Sampling and Enumeration of Microarthropods
Principle
Methods for the Study of Microarthropods
Sampling
Extraction of Microarthropods from Samples
Sample Sorting and Identification
Sampling and Enumeration of Macroarthropods
Principle
Methods for Sampling Macroarthropods
Sampling
Berlese or Tullgren Extraction
Flotation
Emergence Traps
Pitfall Trapping
Sampling and Enumeration of Earthworms
Principle
Collection of Earthworms
Passive Techniques
Behavioral Techniques
Indirect Techniques
Identification of Earthworms
Sampling and Enumeration of Enchytraeids
Principle
Collection of Enchytraeids
Identification of Enchytraeids
References
Index

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