Earth's Ionosphere Plasma Physics and Electrodynamics

ISBN-10: 0120884259

ISBN-13: 9780120884254

Edition: 2nd 2009

List price: $110.00
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Description: Although interesting in its own right, due to the ever increasing use of satellites for communication and navigation, weather in the ionosphere is of great concern. Every such system uses trans-ionospheric propagation of radiowaves, waves which must traverse the often turbulent ionosphere. Understanding this turbulence and predicting it are one of the major goals of the National Space Weather program. Acquiring such a prediction capability will rest on understanding the very topics of this book, the plasma physics and electrodynamics of the system. *Fully updated to reflect advances in the field in the 20 years since the first edition published *Explores the buffeting of the ionosphere from above by the sun and from below by the lower atmosphere *Unique text appropriate both as a refence and for coursework.

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Book details

List price: $110.00
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2009
Publisher: Elsevier Science & Technology Books
Publication date: 5/5/2009
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 576
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.50" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.980
Language: English

Preface
Introductory and Background Material
Scope and Goals of the Text
Historical Perspective
Organization and Limitations
Structure of the Neutral Atmosphere and the Main Ionosphere
D-Region Fundamentals
The Earth's Magnetic Field and Magnetosphere
References
Fundamentals of Atmospheric, Ionospheric, and Magnetospheric Plasma Dynamics
The Basic Fluid Equations
Conservation of Mass
Equation of State
Momentum Equation for the Neutral Fluid
Momentum Equations for the Plasma
The Complete Equation Sets
Steady-State Ionospheric Plasma Motions Due to Applied Forces
Generation of Electric Fields
Electric Field Mapping
Elements of Magnetospheric Physics
The Guiding Center Equations and the Adiabatic Invariants
Magnetohydrodynamics
Are Ionospheric Electric Fields Real?
Coordinate Systems
References
Dynamics and Electrodynamics of the Equatorial Zone
Motions of the Equatorial F Region: The Database
The Equatorial F-Region Dynamo
E-Region Dynamo Theory and the Daytime Equatorial Electrojet
Further Complexities of Equatorial Electrodynamics
The Prereversal Enhancement
High-Latitude Effects on the Equatorial Electric Field
Feedback Between Electrodynamics and Thermospheric Winds
Mesospheric and Lower Thermospheric Dynamics
Atmospheric Winds in the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere
A Primer on Turbulence and the Turbopause
References
Equatorial Plasma Instabilities and Mesospheric Turbulence
F-Region Plasma Instabilities: Observations
Development and Initiation of Convective Equatorial Ionospheric Storms (a.k.a. Equatorial Spread F)
Linear Theory of the Rayleigh-Taylor Instability
The Generalized Rayleigh-Taylor Process: Electric Fields, Neutral Winds, and Horizontal Gradients
The Seeding of Convective Ionospheric Storms by Gravity Waves
Role of Velocity Shear in Convective Ionospheric Storms
Summary of Linear Theory Results
Nonlinear Theories of Convective Ionospheric Storms
Two-Dimensional Computer Simulations
Simulations Including Seeding and Shear
Summary of Nonlinear Theory Results
Linkage of Large and Small Scales in CEIS
Evidence for a Diffusive Subrange
The Diffusive Subrange
Toward a Unified Theory for the Convective Equatorial Ionospheric Storm Spectrum
Convective Equatorial Ionospheric Storm Summary
E-Region Plasma Instabilities: The Observational Data Base
Linear Theories of Electrojet Instabilities
Nonlinear Theories of Electrojet Instabilities
Two-Step Theories for Secondary Waves
On the Observations That the Phase Velocity of Type I Equatorial Waves Is Independent of Angle
Nonlinear Gradient Drift Theories
Nonlinear Studies of Farley-Buneman (FB) Waves
D-Region Turbulence
Future Directions
References
Hydro-and Electrodynamics of the Midlatitude Ionosphere
Introduction to the Tropical and Midlatitude Ionospheres
Background Material
On the Height of the Daytime F2 Layer
Equations Including Vertical Flux Without Winds or Electric Fields
F-Layer Solutions with Production, Diffusion, and Flux
More General Nighttime Solutions
The Appleton Anomaly: An Equatorial Electric Field Effect
The Corotation Electric Field and Formation of the Plasmasphere
Electric Fields in the Tropical and Midlatitude Zone
Electric Field Measurements
Neutral Wind Effects
Combined Effects of Electric Fields and Neutral Winds
Complexities of the Real Nighttime Tropical Ionosphere
The Transition Zone Between Mid-and High Latitudes
Midlatitude Lower Thermosphere Dynamics
Tidal Effects
Wind Profiles
References
Waves and Instabilities at Midlatitudes
Mesoscale Vertical Organization of Ionospheric Plasma: General Considerations
Oscillations of the Neutral Atmosphere
Role of Gravity Waves and Tides in Creating Vertical Ionospheric Structure
Effects of Particle Precipitation at Midlatitudes
Horizontal Structure in the Midlatitude Ionosphere
Midlatitude F-Region Plasma Instabilities
F-Region Plasma Instabilities in the Equatorial Anomaly (Equatorial Arc) Region
Local Midlatitude F-Region Plasma Instabilities: A New Process
Linear Theory for the Perkins Instability
Midlatitude E-Region Instabilities
Radiowave Observations of Nighttime Midlatitude E-Region Instabilities
Multiexperimental Observations of Midlatitude Structures
Midlatitude E-Region Instabilities: Difficulties with Simple Explanations
The Effect of a Wind Shear: The Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability as a Source of Q-P Echoes
The Role of Horizontal Structure: Amplification by the Cowling Effect
Spontaneous Structuring by the Es-Layer Instability
Coupling of Es Layers and the F Layer
The Wavelength Limiting Effect and Small-Scale Instabilities
Wind-Driven Thermal Instabilities
References
Dynamics and Electrodynamics of the Mesosphere
Noctilucent Clouds (NLC) and the Solstice Temperature Anomaly
Gravity Wave Breaking
The Polar Summer Mesosphere: A Wave-Driven Refrigerator
New Observations of NLC and Related Phenomena
Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSE)
The Role of Charged Ice
On the Possible Relationship Between PMSE, NLC, and Atmospheric Change
Upward-Propagating Lightning
Nonlinear Mesospheric Waves
Observations
Analogy to a Hydraulic Jump
Nonlinear Simulation of Mesospheric Bores
References
High-Latitude Electrodynamics
Electrical Coupling Between the Ionosphere, Magnetosphere, and Solar Wind
General Relationships
A Qualitative Description of Convection for Southward IMF
Energy Transfer
Additional Complexities
Observations of Ionospheric Convection
Observations During Southward IMF
Observations During Northward IMF
Simple Models of Convection in the Magnetosphere
Models for Southward IMF
Models for Northward IMF
Empirical and Analytical Representations of High-Latitude Convection
Observations of Field-Aligned Currents
Current Patterns for a Southward IMF
Current Patterns for a Northward IMF
Dependence on Magnetic Activity, IMF, and Season
Horizontal Currents at High Latitudes
References
Ionospheric Response to Electric Fields
Ionospheric Effects of Parallel Plasma Dynamics
Ionospheric Composition at High Latitudes
Hydrodynamic Theory of the Polar Wind
Ionospheric Effects of Perpendicular Plasma Dynamics
The Role of Horizontal Transport
Ion Heating Due to Collisions
Velocity-Dependent Recombination
Positive and Negative Ionospheric Storms
Electrodynamic Forcing of the Neutral Atmosphere
J x B Forcing
Global Observations and Simulations
Particle Acceleration in the Topside Ionosphere
Parallel Electric Fields in the Upper Ionosphere
Ion Outflows and Perpendicular Ion Acceleration
Summary
References
Instabilities and Structures in the High-Latitude Ionosphere
Planetary and Large-Scale Structures in the High-Latitude F Region
Convection and Production as Sources of Planetary Scale Structure in the High-Latitude Ionosphere
Some Effects of Plasma Transport and Loss on the Large-Scale Horizontal Structure of the Ionosphere
Longitudinal Structures Due to Localized Sub-Auroral Electric Fields
Temperature Enhancements in the Trough and Stable Auroral Red Arcs
Horizontal Plasma Variations Due to Localized Plasma Production and Heating
Summary
Intermediate-Scale Structure in the High-Latitude F Region
The Generalized E x B Instability at High Latitudes
Turbulent Mixing as an Alternative to Plasma Instabilities
Diffusion and Image Formation
Small-Scale Waves in the High-Latitude F Region
E-Region Layering at High Latitudes
Plasma Waves and Irregularities in the High-Latitude E Region: Observations
Radar Observations
Rocket Observations of Auroral Electrojet Instabilities
Simultaneous Data Sets
Summary
Linear Auroral Electrojet Wave Theories
The Gradient Drift Instability
The Two-Stream Instability and Type 4 Radar Echoes
Type 3 Radar Echoes: Are They Due to Ion Cyclotron Waves?
Nonlinear Theories
Summary
References
Index
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