Improving Academic Achievement Impact of Psychological Factors on Education

ISBN-10: 012064455X
ISBN-13: 9780120644551
Edition: 2002
Authors: Joshua Aronson
List price: $102.95
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Description: Social psychological research has revealed much about how personal and interpersonal factors impact academic achievement. The research has been reported in several different outlets but has never before been condensed in an easy to read, engaging  More...

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Book details

List price: $102.95
Copyright year: 2002
Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing Limited
Publication date: 4/15/2002
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 395
Size: 6.00" wide x 9.00" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.540
Language: English

Social psychological research has revealed much about how personal and interpersonal factors impact academic achievement. The research has been reported in several different outlets but has never before been condensed in an easy to read, engaging book, targeting the hot topics of coffee table debates. This book does just that, offering review chapters by the most influential researchers of today, written for an audience of educational and cognitive psychologists as well as school administrators, teachers, policy makers, and parents. Section one focuses on what motivates students, how self-esteem affects the learning process, the consequences of achievement goals, the effects of student attributions of success and failure, self-handicapping, methods of strategic learning, and how to successfully use one's intelligence. Section two discusses how the offering of rewards may affect achievement, how teacher expectations may affect student performance, the effects of stereotypes, feedback, and social rejection. There's also a discussion of effective means of turning at-risk students into scholars, and how students can successfully traverse transitions to middle school.

Contributors
Foreword
Preface
Acknowledgments
Introductory Chapter
Self and Self-Belief in Psychology and Education: A Historical Perspective
Historical Development of Research on the Self
The Insurgence of Behaviorist Theories
The Humanistic Revolt
The Cognitive Revolution
Return of Interest in the Self
Why the Resurgent Interest in Self-Beliefs Is Warranted
Revisiting and Extending Classic Lessons
The Pygmalion Effect and Its Mediating Mechanisms
Some Early Results
Teacher Expectation Effects
Replicability of Pygmalion Effects
The Four-Factor "Theory"
Messages That Motivate: How Praise Molds Students' Beliefs, Motivation, and Performance (in Surprising Ways)
The Role of Motivation in Achievement
The Role of Beliefs in Motivation: Overview of the Chapter
Students' "Theories of Intelligence"
Can Theories of Intelligence Be Changed?
Pygmalion and the Malleable Theory
Conclusion
The Paradox of Achievement: The Harder You Push, the Worse it Gets
Excellence in Education
A Motivational Analysis
Motivation and Learning Outcomes
What Leads Teachers to Control?
Conclusion
Improving the Academic Performance of College Students with Brief Attributional Interventions
Misattribution Research
Reattribution Interventions
Improving the Academic Performance of College Students
Recommendations for Educators
Self-Handicapping and School: Academic Self-Concept and Self-Protective Behavior
Self-Handicapping Motives
Individual Differences in Self-Handicapping Tendencies
Consequences of Self-Handicapping
Indications for the Classroom
The Wisdom of Practice: Lessons Learned from the Study of Highly Effective Tutors
Background
Studying "Expert" Tutors
Some General Preliminary Findings
The "Expert" Tutor
The INSPIRE Model
Summary
Implications
Students' Motivation During the Middle School Years
Biological and Cognitive Changes at Early Adolescence
Changes in Self-Concept and Motivation During Early Adolescence
The Middle-Grade School Transition and Student Motivation
Gender Differences in Motivation and Self-Concept at Early Adolescence
Self-Efficacy and Self-Regulated Learning: The Dynamic Duo in School Performance
Self-Efficacy
Self-Regulated Learning
Implications for Teachers
Conclusion
Building Empathy, Compassion, and Achievement in the Jigsaw Classroom
Taking a Close Look at the Classroom Atmosphere
Changing the Classroom Atmosphere
The Jigsaw Classroom
Cooperation: Jigsaw and Basketball
Long-Term Effects?
A Postscript
Intelligence is not Just Inside the Head: The Theory of Successful Intelligence
Inadequacy of Conventional Notions of Intelligence
Three Aspects of Successful Intelligence
Conclusion
Current Lessons
Being and Becoming a Good Person: The Role of Emotional Intelligence in Moral Development and Behavior
What is Emotional Intelligence?
A (Very) Brief History of Moral Psychology and Emotion
Perceiving and Appraising Emotions
Emotions That Help Us Think
Employing Emotional Knowledge
Effectively Regulating Emotions in Ourselves and in Others
A Word About Moral Principles
Moral Education
Conclusion
Mozart and the Mind: Factual and Fictional Effects of Musical Enrichment
School District of Kettle-Moraine Study
Theoretical Interpretations
The Link Between Music and Math
Implications for Public Policy
Stereotype Threat: Contending and Coping with Unnerving Expectations
Stereotype Threat
Contending with Stereotype Threat
Coping with Stereotype Threat
Reducing Stereotype Threat: What Teachers Can Do
Conclusion
A Barrier of Mistrust: How Negative Stereotypes Affect Cross-Race Mentoring
Stigmatization Impedes the Establishment of Trust
Mistrust Undermines Motivation and Performance
Allaying Stigmatization Enhances Motivation and Performance
The Mentor's Dilemma: A Specific Application
Generalizing the Framework: Women Working in the Natural Sciences
The Other Side: Some Effects of Stigmatization on Teacher Feedback
Additional Strategies for Creating Trust
Conclusion
Toward A Resolution of An American Tension: Some Applications of the Helping Model of Affirmative Action to Schooling
Legal Manifestations of an American Tension
What Have We Learned from Attempts at School Desegregation?
What Have We Learned from Recent Attempts at Affirmative Action?
An Overview of the Helping Model of Affirmative Action
Affirmative Action as Help: A Donor's Perspective
Affirmative Action as Help: A Recipient's Perspective
Towards Cooperative and Democratic Help
A Democratic Vision for Schools
Social Exclusion in the Classroom: Teachers and Students as Agents of Change
Social Exclusion as a School Problem
Why are Children Excluded?
Current Interventions
Intervening in the Process of Exclusion
An Alternative Intervention Approach
Suggestions for Future Research and Classroom Practice
Postscript
Index

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