Annual Editions: Physical Anthropology 10/11

ISBN-10: 0078127807
ISBN-13: 9780078127809
Edition: 19th 2010
Authors: Elvio Angeloni
List price: $44.00
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Description: Annual Editions is a series of over 65 volumes, each designed to provide convenient, inexpensive access to a wide range of current articles from some of the most respected magazines, newspapers, and journals published today. Annual Editions are  More...

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Book details

List price: $44.00
Edition: 19th
Copyright year: 2010
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Higher Education
Publication date: 10/19/2009
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 240
Size: 8.25" wide x 10.75" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 0.946
Language: English

Annual Editions is a series of over 65 volumes, each designed to provide convenient, inexpensive access to a wide range of current articles from some of the most respected magazines, newspapers, and journals published today. Annual Editions are updated on a regular basis through a continuous monitoring of over 300 periodical sources. The articles selected are authored by prominent scholars, researchers, and commentators writing for a general audience. The Annual Editions volumes have a number of common organizational features designed to make them particularly useful in the classroom: a general introduction; an annotated table of contents; a topic guide; an annotated listing of selected World Wide Web sites; and a brief overview for each section. Each volume also offers an online Instructor's Resource Guide with testing materials. Using Annual Editions in the Classroom is the general instructor's guide for our popular Annual Editions series and is available in print (0073301906) or online. Visit www.mhcls.com for more details..

Preface
Correlation Guide
Topic Guide
Internet References
Evolutionary Perspectives
Unit Overview
Charles Darwin Was Born into a World That Today's Scientists Wouldn't Recognize, Tom Siegfried, Science News, January 31, 2009
Every great scientist is a product of his or her time
Darwin, more than any other, shaped his and his influence was so much greater than he could ever have imagined
Was Darwin Wrong?, David Quammen, Online Extra, National Geographic Magazine, November, 2004
Evolutionary theory is not just an ephemeral guess, but is a well-established set of concepts that has come to be critically important to human welfare, medical science, and understanding the world around us
The Facts of Evolution, Michael Shermer, from Why Darwin Matters, Henry Hold & Co., 2006
Evolutionary theory is rooted in a rich array of data from the past. While the specifics of evolution are still being studied and unraveled, the general theory is the most tested in science, tests spanning the past century and a half
Evolution in Action, Jonathan Weiner, Natural History, November 2005
More than 250 scientists around the world are documenting evolution in action. Some of the most dramatic cases are those that result from the ecological pressures which human beings are imposing on the planet
How the Dog Got Its Curly Tail, David Sloan Wilson, from Evolution for Everyone, Delacorte Press, 2007
The fact that domestic animals have become tame by retaining their juvenile traits has revealed an important corollary to the concept that heritable variation is shaped by natural selection: not all traits are so purely and simply adaptive
The Latest Face of Creationism, Glenn Branch and Eugenie C. Scott, Scientific American, January 2009
Creationists have long battled against the teaching of evolution in the classroom. Because of a series of legal setbacks, their strategies have had to evolve from promoting their own perspective to undermining science literacy
Why Should Students Learn Evolution?, Brian J. Alters and Sandra M. Alters, Defending Evolution in the Classroom, Jones & Bartlett Publishers, Inc., 2001
In explaining how organisms of today got to be the way they are, the evolutionary perspective helps us to make sense of the history of life and explains relationships among species
It is an essential framework within which scientists organize and interpret observations, and make predictions about the living world
Primates
Unit Overview
The 2% Difference, Robert Sapolsky, Discover, April 2006
Now that scientists have decoded the chimpanzee genome, we know that we share 98% of our DNA with chimps
So how can we be so different? The answer lies in the fact that a very few mutations make for some very big differences
The Mind of the Chimpanzee, Jane Goodall, Through a Window, Houghton Mifflin, 1990
It has long been recognized that the differences in anatomy and physiology between apes and humans is only a matter of degree
Because of the work of Jane Goodall, we have come to realize that there is continuity in the mental and emotional developments as well
Got Culture?, Craig Stanford, from Significant Others, Basic Books, 2001
The study of the rudimentary cultural abilities of the chimpanzee not only sharpens our understanding of our uniqueness as humans, but it also suggests an ancient ancestry of the mental abilities that we and the chimpanzees have in common
Dim Forest, Bright Chimps, Christophe Boesch and Hedwige Boesch-Achermann, Natural History, September 1991
Contrary to expectations, forest-dwelling chimpanzees seem to be more committed to cooperative hunting and tool use than are savanna chimpanzees
Such findings may have implications for the understanding of the course of human evolution
Thinking Like a Monkey, Jerry Adler, Smithsonian, January 2008
Sometimes, rather than simply observing primates, researchers try to decipher their thoughts and intentions by subjecting them to experimental trials. In this case, the issue has to do with whether rhesus monkeys have a theory of mind
Why Are Some Animals So Smart?, Carel Van Schaik, Scientific American, April 2006
Observations of orangutans in the wild show that the more individuals have an opportunity to learn from one another, the more innovative and intelligent they become
How Animals Do Business, Frans B. M. de Waal, Scientific American, April 2005
In contrast to classical economic theory, which views people as profit maximizers driven by pure selfishness, recent studies show that both people and animals occasionally help one another, even when there is no obvious benefit involved
A Telling Difference, Stephen R. Anderson, Natural History, November 2004
Some animals, such as the bonobo named Kanzi, have amazing communication skills, but evidence that they are capable of abstractions and grammatical structuring like humans is lacking
Sex and Gender
Unit Overview
What Are Friends For?, Barbara Smuts, Natural History, February 1987
An understanding of friendship bonds that exist among baboons is not only destroying our stereotypes about monkeys in the wild, but is also calling into question the traditional views concerning the relationships between the sexes in early hominid evolution
Face-Offs of the Female Kind, Marina Cords, Natural History, September 2008
Among the blue monkeys of Western Kenya, territorial battles reveal some rather peculiar group dynamics. For one thing, females fight far more often than males and for another, the higher the rank the more they seem to depend on those at the bottom when the group splits into two
What's Love Got to Do with It?: Sex among Our Closest Relatives Is a Rather Open Affair, Meredith F. Small, Discover, June 1992
The bonobos' use of sex to reduce tension and to form alliances is raising some interesting questions regarding human evolution. Does this behavior help to explain the origin of our sexuality? Or should we see it as just another primate aberration that occurred after the split from the human lineage?
Mothers and Others, Sarah Blaffer Hrdy, Natural History, May 2001
In many species, including our own, mothers are assisted in rearing their offspring by others. The more we adhere to this evolutionary heritage of "cooperative breeding,'' the more likely we are to raise emotionally healthy children
The Fossil Evidence
Unit Overview
The Salamander's Tale, Richard Dawkins, from The Ancestor's Tale: A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Evolution, Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004
To identify two different species with distinct names implies a discontinuity between them. Yet, if they were part of an evolutionary sequence, one begetting the other, the continuous reality contradicts the discontinuity implied by the names
It is no wonder, therefore that Dawkins claims that "names are a menace to evolutionary history.''
The Woman Who Shook up Man's Family Tree, Donald C. Johanson and Kate Wong, from Lucy's Legacy, Harmony Books, 2009
Don Johanson and Kate Wong show that the search for fossil hominids is a daunting task
It requires sufficient financial support, access to promising research sites in remote areas, collaboration among a variety of specialists, physical endurance and that most elusive quality of all-sheer luck
Hunting the First Hominid, Pat Shipman, American Scientist, January/February 2002
In the search for the first hominid to branch off from the apes, taking note of the key features that distinguish apes from people helps to an extent
However, such a list can be misleading, because not all of these features arose simultaneously, and we do not even know which came first
Made in Savannahstan, Marek Kohn, New Scientist, July 1/July 7, 2006
The prevailing view in Paleoanthropology has been that our ancestors evolved human-like traits in Africa before entering Europe and Asia. Recent evidence points to another possibility-that early hominins expanded out of Africa at an earlier stage and then returned to the ancestral continent as Homo erectus
Scavenger Hunt, Pat Shipman, Natural History, April 1984
Microscopic analyses of tooth wear and cut marks on bones, combined with an increased understanding of the advantages of bipedalism, point in the direction of a "Man the Scavenger'' model rather than "Man the Hunter.''
The Scavenging of "Peking Man'', Noel T. Boaz and Russell L. Ciochon, Natural History, March 2001
Dragon Bone Hill in China is the site of the cave that yielded the first, and the still largest, cache of fossils of Homo erectus pekinensis. In the process of applying new methods of analysis to the evidence, the authors try to determine whether these relatives of ours used fire, and whether they were cannibals, hunters, or the hunted
Late Hominid Evolution
Unit Overview
Hard Times among the Neanderthals, Erik Trinkaus, Natural History, December 1978
In spite of the coarseness of their lifestyle and the apparent violence between individuals, Neanderthal skeletal remains reveal a prehistoric record of affection and respect, and they should be accorded the status of human beings
Rethinking Neanderthals, Joe Alper, Smithsonian, June 2003
Contrary to the widely held view that Neanderthals were evolutionary failures, the fact is that they persisted through some of the harshest climates imaginable. Over a period of 200,000 years, they had made some rather sophisticated tools and have had a social life that involved taking care of the wounded and burying the dead
Last of the Neanderthals: A Hunter Retreats, Stephen S. Hall, National Geographic, October 2008
With their large brains and enormous strength, Neanderthals were well suited to the rigors of hunting ice age mammals. But as the climate changed and a new kind of human appeared on the landscape, their numbers dwindled and they could no longer compete
The Great Human Migration, Guy Gugliotta, Smithsonian, July 2008
Although modern humans made forays out of Africa much earlier, they did not actually penetrate Western Europe until about 40,000 years ago, as the last pockets of Neanderthals dwindled to extinction
The Littlest Human, Kate Wong, Scientific American, February 2005
An astonishing find in Indonesia suggests that a diminutive hominid, perhaps downsized from Homo erectus, co-existed with our kind in the not so distant past
The Gift of Gab, Matt Cartmill, Discover, November 1998
While the origin of human language is rooted in the aspects of psychology and biology that we share with our close animal relatives, our kind of communication seems to be associated with making tools and throwing weapons
The Birth of Childhood, Ann Gibbons, Science, November 14, 2008
Unlike our closest relatives, the apes, humans depend on their parents for a long period after weaning. New investigative technology has allowed researchers to determine when and why our long childhood evolved
The Brain, Carl Zimmer, Discover, November 2008
Facial expression is not simply a form of communication that can be traced back through our primate ancestry. Nor are the facial muscles themselves simply rooted in our fish ancestry. One of the most startling findings gained from recent research is that making faces helps us understand what other people are feeling
Human Diversity
Unit Overview
Skin Deep, Nina G. Jablonski and George Chaplin, Scientific American, October 2002
Although recent migrations and cultural adaptation tend to complicate the picture, human skin color has evolved to be dark enough to prevent sunlight from destroying the nutrient folate, but light enough to foster the production of vitamin D.
Born Gay?, Michael Abrams, Discover, June 2007
The search for the causes of homosexuality may have therapeutic implications or even political ones, but most researchers are concentrating on the scientific issues: How might sexuality-related genes build brains? How are people attracted to each other? How and why might homosexuality have evolved?
How Real Is Race?: Using Anthropology to Make Sense of Human Diversity, Carol Mukhopadhyay and Rosemary C. Henze, Phi Delta Kappan, Volume 84, Issue 9, 2003
The authors claim that race is not a scientifically valid biological category. Instead, looking at it as a historically specific way of thinking about categorizing and treating human beings, race can be seen as a cultural invention
The Tall and the Short of It, Barry Bogin, Discover, February 1998
Rather than being able to adapt to a single environment, we can-thanks to our genetically endowed plasticity, change our bodies to cope with a wide variety of environments. In this light, research suggests that we can use the average height of any group of people as a barometer of the health of that particular society
Living with the Past
Unit Overview
The Viral Superhighway, George J. Armelagos, The Sciences, January/February 1998
The modern world is becoming a viral superhighway
Environmental disruptions and international travel have brought on a new era of human illness, one marked by new diabolical diseases
The Perfect Plague, Jared Diamond and Nathan Wolfe, Discover, November 2008
Globalization, changing climate, and the threat of drug resistance have conspired to set the stage for that perfect microbial storm: a situation in which an emerging pathogen-another HIV or smallpox perhaps-might burst on the scene and kill millions of people before we can respond
The Inuit Paradox, Patricia Gadsby, Discover, October 2004
The traditional diet of the Far North, with its high-protein, high-fat content, shows that there are no essential foods-only essential nutrients
Dr. Darwin, Lori Oliwenstein, Discover, October 1995
The application of Darwin's theory of evolution to the understanding of human diseases will not only help us better treat the symptoms of diseases, but also helps us understand how microbes and humans have evolved in relation to one another
Curse and Blessing of the Ghetto, Jared Diamond, Discover, March 1991
Tay-Sachs disease is a choosy killer, one that targeted Eastern European Jews above all others for centuries. By decoding its lethal logic, we can learn a great deal about how genetic diseases evolve-and how they can be conquered
Ironing It Out, Sharon Moalem, Survival of the Sickest, HarperCollins, 2007
Hemochromatosis is a hereditary disease that disrupts the human body's ability to metabolize iron. To understand why such a deadly disease would be bred into our genetic code, we need to take a closer look at European history, the bubonic plague, and medical practices that were discredited
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