Critical Thinking A Student's Introduction

ISBN-10: 0078038316

ISBN-13: 9780078038310

Edition: 5th 2013

List price: $166.67 Buy it from $60.00
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Description:

Bassham's popular text helps today's students bridge the gap between everyday culture and critical thinking. Using a proven step-by-step approach, this text covers all the basics of critical thinking in clear, reader-friendly language. The 5th edition has taken into account suggestions from users and reviewers of previous additions, and has added an Appendix, and new readings, exercises and examples throughout the text.
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Book details

List price: $166.67
Edition: 5th
Copyright year: 2013
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Companies, The
Publication date: 9/5/2012
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 544
Size: 7.25" wide x 8.75" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 2.024
Language: English

A Word to Students
Preface
Introduction to Critical Thinking
What Is Critical Thinking?
Critical Thinking Standards
Clarity
Precision
Accuracy
Relevance
Consistency
Logical Correctness
Completeness
Fairness
The Benefits of Critical Thinking
Critical Thinking in the Classroom
Critical Thinking in the Workplace
Critical Thinking in Life
Barriers to Critical Thinking
Egocentrism
Sociocentrism
Unwarranted Assumptions and Stereotypes
Relativistic Thinking
Wishful Thinking
Characteristics of a Critical Thinker
Recognizing Arguments
What Is an Argument?
Identifying Premises and Conclusions
What Is Not an Argument?
Reports
Unsupported Assertions
Conditional Statements
Illustrations
Explanations
Basic Logical Concepts
Deduction and Induction
How Can We Tell Whether an Argument Is Deductive or Inductive?
The Indicator Word Test
The Strict Necessity Test
The Common Pattern Test
The Principle of Charity Test
Exceptions to the Strict Necessity Test
Common Patterns of Deductive Reasoning
Hypothetical Syllogism
Categorical Syllogism
Argument by Elimination
Argument Based on Mathematics
Argument from Definition
Common Patterns of Inductive Reasoning
Inductive Generalization
Predictive Argument
Argument from Authority
Causal Argument
Statistical Argument
Argument from Analogy
Deductive Validity
Inductive Strength
Language
Finding the Right Words: The Need for Precision
Vagueness
Overgenerality
Ambiguity
The Importance of Precise Definitions
Types of Definitions
Strategies for Defining
Rules for Constructing Good Lexical Definitions
Emotive Language: Slanting the Truth
The Emotive Power of Words
Euphemisms and Political Correctness
Logical Fallacies-!
The Concept of Relevance
Fallacies of Relevance
Personal Attack (Ad Hominem)
Attacking the Motive
Look Who's Talking (Tu Quoque)
Two Wrongs Make a Right
Scare Tactics
Appeal to Pity
Bandwagon Argument
Straw Man
Red Herring
Equivocation
Begging the Question
Logical Fallacies-II
Fallacies of Insufficient Evidence
Inappropriate Appeal to Authority
Appeal to Ignorance
False Alternatives
Loaded Question
Questionable Cause
Hasty Generalization
Slippery Slope
Weak Analogy
Inconsistency
Analyzing Arguments
Diagramming Short Arguments
Tips on Diagramming Arguments
Summarizing Longer Arguments
Paraphrasing
Finding Missing Premises and Conclusions
Summarizing Extended Arguments
Common Mistakes to Avoid in Standardizing Arguments
Evaluating Arguments and Truth Claims
When Is an Argument a Good One?
What "Good Argument" Does Not Mean
What "Good Argument" Does Mean
When Is It Reasonable to Accept a Premise?
Refuting Arguments
Appendix: Sample Critical Essay
A Little Categorical Logic
Categorical Statements
Translating into Standard Categorical Form
Categorical Syllogisms
A Little Propositional Logic
Conjunction
Conjunction and Validity
Negation
Deeper Analysis of Negation and Conjunction
Disjunction
Conditional Statements
Inductive Reasoning
Introduction to Induction
Inductive Generalizations
Evaluating Inductive Generalizations
Opinion Polls and Inductive Generalizations
Statistical Arguments
Reference Class
Induction and Analogy
What Is an Analogy?
How Can We Argue by Analogy?
Evaluating Arguments from Analogy
Arguing by Analogy
Induction and Causal Arguments
Correlation and Cause
A Few Words about Probability
A Closer Look at a Priori Probability
Finding, Evaluating, and Using Sources
Finding Sources
Refining Your Search: Questions and Keywords
Directional Information
Informational Sources
Evaluating Sources
Content: Facts and Everything Else
The Author and the Publisher
The Audience
Evaluating Internet Sources
Taking Notes
Bibliographical Information
Content Notes: Quotes, Summaries, and Paraphrases
Using Sources
Acknowledging Sources
Incorporating Sources
Writing Argumentative Essays
Writing a Successful Argument
Before You Write
Know Yourself
Know Your Audience
Choose and Narrow Your Topic
Write a Sentence That Expresses Your Claim
Gather Ideas: Brainstorm and Research
Organize Your Ideas
Writing the First Draft
Provide an Interesting Opening
Include a Thesis Statement
Develop Your Body Paragraphs
Provide a Satisfying Conclusion
After the First Draft
Read What You Have Written and Revise
Consider What You Have Not Written and Revise
Show Your Work
Edit Your Work
Hand It In
Sample Argumentative Essay
Thinking Critically about the Media
The Mass Media
Social Media
The News Media
The Importance of Context
Getting Us to Pay Attention: What Really Drives the Media
Keeping Our Interest: The News as Entertainment
How the Media Entertain Us
Slanting the News
Media Literacy
Advertising
What Ads Do
Defenses of Advertising
Criticisms of Advertising
Common Advertising Ploys
Science and Pseudoscience
The Basic Pattern of Scientific Reasoning
The Limitations of Science
How to Distinguish Science from Pseudoscience
A Case Study in Pseudoscientific Thinking: Astrology
Essays for Critical Analysis
The Six Habits of Effective Problem-Solvers
Notes
Answers to Selected Exercises
Credits
Index
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