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Therapeutic Modalities For Sports Medicine and Athletic Training

ISBN-10: 0077236335
ISBN-13: 9780077236335
Edition: 6th 2009
List price: $219.33
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Book details

List price: $219.33
Edition: 6th
Copyright year: 2009
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Companies, The
Publication date: 6/2/2008
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 448
Size: 7.50" wide x 9.25" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 2.112
Language: English

Dr. William Prentice is Professor of Exercise and Sport Science and Coordinator of the Sports Medicine Program at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where he also serves as the Director of the NATA approved Graduate Athletic Training Education Program. He received his BS and MS from the University of Delaware and his Ph.D. in Sports Medicine and Applied Physiology from the University of Virginia. He also has a BS in Physical Therapy from the University of North Carolina. He is a Certified Member of the National Athletic Trainers' Association and has received the Sayers A. "Bud" Miller Distinguished Athletic Trainer Educator Award and the Most Distinguished Athletic Trainer Award from the NATA. In 2004 he was inducted into the NATA Hall of Fame. Dr. Prentice served as the Athletic Trainer for the Women's Soccer Program, which has won eighteen NCAA National Championships. He teaches graduate courses in sports medicine and athletic training. Dr. Prentice is the author of nine best-selling texts in athletic training, sports medicine, and health-related fitness.

Preface
Contributors
Foundations of Therapeutic Modalities
The Basic Science of Therapeutic Modalities
Forms of Energy
Electromagnetic Energy
The Relationship between Wavelength and Frequency
The Electromagnetic Energy Spectrum
How Is Electromagnetic Energy Produced?
Effects of Electromagnetic Radiations
Laws Governing the Effects of Electromagnetic Energy
Electromagnetic Energy Modalities
Thermal Energy
Thermal Energy Modalities
Electrical Energy
Electrical Energy Modalities
Sound Energy
Sound Energy Modalities
Mechanical Energy
Mechanical Energy Modalities
Summary
Using Therapeutic Modalities to Affect the Healing Process
How Should the Athletic Trainer Use Therapeutic Modalities in Rehabilitation?
The Importance of Understanding the Healing Process
Inflammatory-Response Phase
Fibroplastic-Repair Phase
Maturation-Remodeling Phase
Factors That Impede Healing
How Should Therapeutic Modalities Be Used throughout the Rehabilitation Process?
Using Modalities in the Immediate First Aid Management of Injury
Modality Use in the Inflammatory-Response Phase
Modality Use in the Fibroblastic-Repair Phase
Modality Use in the Maturation-Remodeling Phase
Other Considerations in Treating Injury
Summary
Managing Pain with Therapeutic Modalities
Understanding Pain
Types of Pain
Pain Assessment
Pain Assessment Scales
Goals in Pain Management
Pain Perception
Sensory Receptors
Cognitive Influences
Neural Transmission
Facilitators and Inhibitors of Synaptic Transmission
Nociception
Neurophysiological Explanations of Pain Control
The Gate Control Theory of Pain
Descending Pain Controls
�-endorphin and Dynorphin in Pain Control
Summary of Pain Control Mechanisms
Pain Management
Summary
Thermal Energy Modalities
Cryotherapy and Thermotherapy
Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
Appropriate Use of Cryotherapy and Thermotherapy Modalities
Clinical Use of the Conductive Energy Modalities
Effects of Tissue Temperature Change on Circulation
Effects of Tissue Temperature Change on Muscle Spasm
Effects of Temperature Change on Performance
Cryotherapy
Physiologic Effects of Tissue Cooling
Cryotherapy Treatment Techniques
Thermotherapy
Physiologic Effects of Tissue Healing
Thermotherapy Treatment Techniques
Counterirritants
Summary
Electrical Energy Modalities
Basic Principles of Electricity and Electrical Stimulating Currents
Components of Electrical Currents
Electrotherapeutic Currents
Generators of Electrotherapeutic Currents
Waveforms
Waveform Shape
Pulses versus Phases and Direction of Current Flow
Current Modulation
Electrical Circuits
Series and Parallel Circuits
Current Flow through Biologic Tissues
Choosing Appropriate Treatment Parameters
Frequency
Intensity
Duration
Polarity
Physiologic Responses to Electrical Current
Direct and Indirect Physiologic Effects
Nerve Responses to Electrical Currents
Muscular Responses to Electrical Current
Biostimulative Effects of Electrical Current on Nonexcitatory Cells
Clinical Uses of Electrical Stimulating Currents
High-Volt Currents
Asymmetric Biphasic Currents (TENS)
Russian Currents (Medium-Frequency Current Generators)
Interferential Currents
Premodulated Interferential Current
Low-Volt Currents
Bone Growth Stimulators
Placebo Effect of Electrical Stimulation
Safety in the Use of Electrical Equipment
Summary
Iontophoresis
Iontophoresis versus Phonophoresis
Basic Mechanisms of Ion Transfer
Pharmacokinetics of Iontophoresis
Movement of Ions in Solution
Movement of Ions through Tissue
Iontophoresis Equipment and Treatment Techniques
Type of Current Required
Iontophoresis Generators
Current Intensity
Treatment Duration
Dosage of Medication
Electrodes
Selecting the Appropriate Ion
Clinical Applications for Iontophoresis
Treatment Precautions and Contraindications
Treatment of Burns
Sensitivity Reactions to Ions
Summary
Biofeedback
Electromyography and Biofeedback
The Role of Biofeedback
Biofeedback Instrumentation
Peripheral Skin Temperature
Finger Phototransmission
Skin Conductance Activity
Electromyographic Biofeedback
Motor Unit Recruitment
Measuring Electrical Activity
Separation and Amplification of Electromyographic Activity
Converting Electromyographic Activity to Meaningful Information
Processing the Electromyographic Signal
Biofeedback Equipment and Treatment Techniques
Electrodes
Displaying the Information
Clinical Applications for Biofeedback
Muscle Reeducation
Relaxation of Muscle Guarding
Pain Reduction
Treating Neurologic Conditions
Summary
Sound Energy Modalities
Therapeutic Ultrasound
Ultrasound as a Heating Modality
Transmission of Acoustic Energy in Biologic Tissues
Transverse versus Longitudinal Waves
Frequency of Wave Transmission
Velocity
Attenuation
Basic Principles of Therapeutic Ultrasound
Components of a Therapeutic Ultrasound Generator
Physiologic Effects of Ultrasound
Thermal Effects
Nonthermal Effects
Ultrasound Treatment Techniques
Frequency of Treatment
Duration of Treatment
Coupling Methods
Exposure Techniques
Clinical Applications for Therapeutic Ultrasound
Soft-Tissue Healing and Repair
Scar Tissue and Joint Contracture
Stretching of Connective Tissue
Chronic Inflammation
Bone Healing
Pain Reduction
Plantar Warts
Placebo Effects
Phonophoresis
Using Ultrasound in Combination with Other Modalities
Ultrasound and Hot Packs
Ultrasound and Cold Packs
Ultrasound and Electrical Stimulation
Treatment Precautions
Guidelines for the Safe Use of Ultrasound Equipment
Summary
Electromagnetic Energy Modalities
Low-Level Laser Therapy
Physics
Types of Lasers
Laser Treatment Techniques
Lasing Techniques
Dosage
Depth of Penetration
Clinical Applications for Lasers
Wound Healing
Pain
Bone Response
Suggested Treatment Protocols
Pain
Wound Healing
Scar Tissue
Edema and Inflammation
Safety
Precautions and Contraindications
Conclusion
Summary
Shortwave and Microwave Diathermy
Physiologic Responses to Diathermy
Thermal Effects
Nonthermal Effects
Shortwave Diathermy Equipment
Shortwave Diathermy Electrodes
Pulsed Shortwave Diathermy
Treatment Time
Microwave Diathermy
Clinical Applications for Diathermy
Comparing Shortwave Diathermy and Ultrasound as Thermal Modalities
Diathermy Treatment Precautions, Indications, and Contraindications
Summary
Mechanical Energy Modalities
Intermittent Compression Devices
The Lymphatic System
Purposes of the Lymphatic System
Structure of the Lymphatic System
Peripheral Lymphatic Structure and Function
Injury Edema
Formation of Pitting Edema
Formation of Lymphedema
The Negative Effects of Edema Accumulation
Treatment of Edema
Intermittent Compression Treatment Techniques
Inflation Pressures
On-Off Sequence
Total Treatment Time
Sequential Compression Pumps
Patient Setup and Instructions
Cold and Compression Combination
Indications and Contraindications for Use
Summary
Spinal Traction
The Physical Effects of Traction
Effects on Spinal Movement
Effects on Bone
Effects on Ligaments
Effects on the Disk
Effects on Articular Facet Joints
Effects on the Muscular System
Effects on the Nerves
Effects on the Entire Body Part
Traction Treatment Techniques
Lumbar Positional Traction
Inversion Traction
Manual Lumbar Traction
Level-Specific Manual Traction
Unilateral Leg Pull Manual Traction
Mechanical Lumbar Traction
Patient Setup and Equipment
Body Position
Traction Force
Intermittent versus Sustained Traction
Duration of Treatment
Progressive and Regressive Steps
Manual Cervical Traction
Mechanical Cervical Traction
Indications and Contraindications
Summary
Therapeutic Sports Massage
The Evolution of Massage as a Treatment Modality
Physiologic Effects of Massage
Reflexive Effects
Mechanical Effects
Psychological Effects of Massage
Massage Treatment Considerations and Guidelines
Equipment
Preparation of the Patient
Massage Treatment Techniques
Hoffa Massage
Friction Massage
Transverse Friction Massage
Connective Tissue Massage
Trigger Point Massage
Strain-Counterstrain
Positional Release Therapy
Active Release Technique
Myofascial Release
Graston Technique�
Rolfing
Trager
Indications and Contraindications for Massage
Summary
Appendixes
Location of the Motor Points
Units of Measure
Answers to Self-Quizzes
Glossary
Credits
Index

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