Forest Measurements

ISBN-10: 0073661767
ISBN-13: 9780073661766
Edition: 5th 2002 (Revised)
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Book details

List price: $242.00
Edition: 5th
Copyright year: 2002
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Higher Education
Publication date: 6/7/2001
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 480
Size: 6.50" wide x 9.25" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 2.156
Language: English

Preface
Introduction
Purpose of Book
Need for Measurements
Neasurement Cost Considerations
Abbreviations and Symbols
Numerical Considerations
Scales of Measurement
Significant Digits and Rounding Off
English Versus Metric Systems
Presenting Information
Preparation of Graphs
Preparation of Technical Reports
Reviews of Technical Literature
Problems
Statistical Methods
Introduction
Bias, Accuracy, and Precision
Calculating Probabilities
Factorial Notation, Permutations, and Combinations
Statistical Concepts
Analysis of Data
Populations, Parameters, and Variables
Frequency Distributions
Statistical Computations
Mode, Median, and Mean
The Range and Average Deviation
Variance and Standard Deviation
Coefficient of Variation
Standard Error of the Mean
Confidence Limits
Covariance
Simple Correlation Coefficient
Expansion of Means and Standard Errors
Mean and Vairance of Linear Functions
Simple Linear Regression
Definitions
A Linear Equation
A Sample Problem
Indicators of Fit
Regression Through the Origin
Hazards of Interpretation
Multiple Regression
Problems
References
Sampling Designs
Introduction
Sampling Versus Complete Enumeration
The Sampling Frame
Simple Random and Systematic Sampling
Simple Random Sampling
Sampling Intensity
Effect of Plot Size on Variability
Systematic Sampling
Stratified Random Sampling
Stratifying the Population
Proportional Allocation of Field Plots
Optimum Allocation of Field Plots
Sample Size for Stratified Sampling
Regression and Ratio Estimation
Regression Estimation
Comparison of Regression Estimation to Simple Random Sampling
Ratio Estimation
Double Sampling
Double Sampling with Regression and Ratio Estimators
Double Sampling for Stratification
Cluster and Two-Stage Sampling
Cluster Sampling
Two-Stage Sampling
Sampling for Discrete Variables
Simple Random Sampling for Attributes
Cluster Sampling for Attributes
Relative Efficiencies of Sampling Plans
Problems
References
Land Measurements
Applications of Surveying
Measuring Distances
Pacing Horizontal Distances
Chaining Horizontal Distances
Methods of Tape Graduation
Electronic Distance Measurement
Using Magnetic Compasses
Nomenclature of the Compass
Magnetic Declination
Allowance for Declination
Use of the Compass
Area Determination
Simple Closed Traverse
Graphical Area Determination
DOT Grids
Planimeters
Transects
Topographic Maps
Colonial Land Subdivision
Metes and Bounds Surveys
The U.S. Public Land Survey
History
The Method of Subdivision
The 24-Mile Tracts
Townships
Establishment of Sections and Lots
Survey Field Notes
Marking Land Survey Lines
Global Positioning Systems
Purpose of GPS
How GPS Works
GPS Accuracy
Differential Correction
GPS Data
GPS Receivers
Problems
References
Cubic Volume, Cord Measure, and Weight Scaling
Logs, Bolts, and Scaling Units
Computing Cross-Sectional Areas
Log Volumes and Geometric Solids
Scaling by the Cubic Foot
Inscribed Sqaure Timbers
Measuring Stacked Wood
The Cord
Solid Contents of Stacked Wood
An Ideal Measure
Weight Scaling of Pulpwood
The Appeal of Weight Scaling
Variations in Weight
Wood Density and Weight Ratios
Advantages of Weight Scaling
Problems
References
Log Rules, Scaling Practices, and Specialty Wood Products
Log Rules
General Features of Board-Foot Log Rules
Derivation of Log Rules
Mill-Tally Log Rules
Board Foot-Cubic Root Ratios
Scribner Log Rule
Doyle Log Rule
International Log Rule
Overrun and Underrun
Board-Foot Volume Conversions
Board-Foot Log Scaling
Scaling Straight, Sound Logs
Log Defects
Board-Foot Deduction Methods
Cull Percent Deduction Methods
Merchantable Versus Cull Logs
Scaling Records
Log Scanning
Log Grading
Need for Log Grading
Hardwood Log Grading
Softwood Log Grading
Weight Scaling of Sawlogs
Advantages and Limitations
Volume-Weight Relationships for Sawlogs
Specialty Wood Products
Specialty Products Defined
Veneer Logs
Poles and Piling
Fence Posts
Railroad Ties
Mine Timbers
Stumps for the Wood Naval-Stores Industry
Bolts and Billets
Fuel Wood
Problems
References
Measuring Standing Trees
Tree Diameters
Diameter at Breast Height for Irregular Trees
Measuring Bark Thickness
Tree Diameter Classes
Basal Area and Mean Diameter
Upper-Stem Diameters
Tree Heights
Height Poles
Height Measurement Principles
Merritt Hypsometer
Total Versus Merchantable Heights
Sawlog Merchantability for Irregular Stems
Tree Form Expressions
Form Factors and Quotients
Girard Form Class
Form Measurements
Tree Crowns
Importance of Crown Measures
Crown Width
Crown Length
Crown Surface Area and Volume
Tree Age
Definitions
Age From Annual Rings
Age Without Annual Rings
Problems
References
Volumes and Weights of Standing Trees
Purpose of Volume and Weight Equations
Types of Tree Volume and Weight Equations
Multiple-Entry Volume Tables
Form-Class Versus Non-Form-Class Equations
Compilation of MEsavage-Girard Form-Class Tables
Constructing Multiple-Entry Volume Equations
Selecting a Multiple-Entry Volume Equation
Making Allowances for Various Utilization Standards
Tree Volumes From Taper Equations
Integrating Taper Functions
Single-Entry Volume Equations
Advantages and Limitations
Constructing a Single-Entry Equation from Measurements of Felled Trees
Derivation from a Multiple-Entry Equation
Tarif Tables
Tree Weight Equations
Field Tallies by Weight
Weight Equations for Tree Boles
Biomass Equations
Problems
References
Forest Inventory
Introduction
Classes of Timber Surveys
Inventory Planning
Forest Inventory and Analysis
Special Inventory Considerations
Tree Tallies
Electronic Data Recorders
Tree-Defect Estimation
The Complete Tree Tally
Organizing the Complete Tree Tally
Timber Inventory as a Sampling Process
Summaries of Cruise Data
Stand and Stock Tables
Timber Volumes From Stump Diameters
Sales of Standing Timber
Stumpage Value
Methods of Selling Standing Timber
Timber-Sale Contracts
Problems
References
Inventories with Sample Strips or Plots
Fixed-Area Sampling Units
Strip System of Cruising
Strip-Cruise Layout
Computing Tract Acreage From Sample Strips
Field Procedure for Strip Cruising
Pros and Cons of Strip Cruising
Line-Plot System of Cruising
The Traditional Approach
Plot Cruise Example
Sampling Intensity and Design
Cruising Techniques
Boundary Overlap
Merits of the Plot System
Use of Permanent Sample Plots
Criteria for Inventory Plots
Sample Units: Size, Shape, and Number
Field-Plot Establishment
Field-Plot Measurements
Periodic Reinventories
Regeneration Surveys with Sample Plots
Need for Regeneration Surveys
Stocked-Quadrat Method
Plot-Count Method
Staked-Point Method
Problems
References
Inventories with Point Samples
The Concept of Point Sampling
Nomenclature and Variants
Selecting a Sighting Angle
Plot Radius Factor
How Point Sampling Works
Imaginary Tree Zones
Equality of Tree Basal Area on a Per-Acre Basis
Implementing Point Sampling
The Stick-Type Angle Gauge
The Spiegel Relascope
The Wedge Prism
Calibration of Prisms or Angle Gauges
Corrections for Slope
Doubtful Trees, Limiting Distances, and Bias
Boundary Overlap
Choice of Instruments
Volume Calculations
Example of Computational Procedures
Basal Area Per Acre
Trees Per Acre
Volume Per Acre by the Volume-Factor Approach
Volume Per Acre by the Volume/Basal-Area Ratios Approach
Estimating Precision
Field Tally by Height Class
Point Sampling in a Double-Sampling Context
Estimating Growth from Permanent Points
Point-Sample Cruising Intensity
Comparisons with Conventional Plots
Number of Sampling Points Needed
Point Samples Versus Plots
Attributes and Limitations
Problems
References
Inventories with 3P Sampling
Introduction
Components of 3P Inventory
How 3P is Applied
Timber-Sale Example
Preliminary Steps
Field Procedure
Sample-Tree Measurement
3P Computations
Numerical Example
Extensions, Attributes, and Limitations of Basic 3P Sampling
Extensions of Basic 3P Sampling
Attributes and Limitations of 3P Sampling
Problems
References
Using Aerial Photographs
Purpose of Chapter
Types of Aerial Photographs
Black-and-White Aerial Films
Color Aerial Films
Seasons for Aerial Photography
Determining Photographic Scales
Photogeometry
Aligning Prints for Stereoscopic Study
Cover-Type Identificaion and Mapping
Forest Type Recognition
Identifying Individual Species
Timber Type Maps
Using Photos for Field Travel
Basic Forest Measurements
Measuring Area and Distance
Measuring Heights by Parallax
Parallax-Measuring Devices
Tree-Crown Diameters
Tree Counts
Individual-Tree Volumes
Aerial Stand-Volume Tables
Crown Closure
Stand-Volume Estimates
Adjusting Photo Volumes by Field Checks
Obtaining Aerial Photographs
The Options
Photography from Commercial Firms
Photography from the U.S. Government
Photography from the Canadian Government
Taking Your Own Pictures
Contracting For New Photography
Other Remote-Sensing Tools
Problems
References
Geographic Information Systems
What is a GIS?
GIS Data Structures
Data Formats
Raster Data
Vector Data
Raster Versus Vector Systems
Geographic Coordinate Systems
Types of Coordinate Systems
The Latitude and Longitude System
The Universal Transverse Mercator Coordinate System
The State Plane Coordinate System
GIS Data Sources, Entry, and Quality
Deriving Digital Maps
Existing Map Data
Digitizing and Scanning
Field and Image Data
Errors and Accuracy
GIS Analysis Functions
Analysis-The Power of GIS
Spatial Analysis Functions
Cartographic Modeling
Problems
References
Site, Stocking, and Stand Density
The Concepts of Site
Direct Measurement of Forest Productivity
Tree Height as a Measure of Site Quality
Field Measurement of Site Index
Construction of Site-Index Curves
Interspecies Site-Index Relationships
Periodic Height Growth
Physical-Factors Approach
Indicator-Plant Approach
Limitations of Site Index
Stocking and Stand Density
Definitions
Measures of Stocking
Basal Area Per Acre
Trees Per Acre
Stand-Density Index
3/2 Law of Self-Thinning
Relative Spacing
Crown Competition Factor
Stocking Guides
Measures of Point Density
Problems
References
Tree-Growth and Stand-Table Projection
Increases in Tree Diameter
Increases in Tree Height
Periodic and Mean Annual Growth
Past Growth From Complete Stem Analysis
Tree Growth as a Percentage Value
Predictions of Tree Growth
Future Yields from Growth Percentage
Growth Prediction from Diameter and Height Increases
Stand-Table Projection
Components of Stand Growth
Characteristics of Stand-Table Projection
Diameter Growth
Stand Mortality and Ingrowth
A Sample Stand Projection
Problems
References
Growth and Yield Models
Introduction
Growth and Yield Relationships
Mathematical Relationships Between Growth and Yield
Growth and Yield Models for Even-Aged Stands
Normal Yield Tables
Empirical Yield Tables
Variable-Density Growth and Yield Equations
Size-Class Distribution Models
Example of Computatins for Size-Class Distribution Model
Individual-Tree Models for Even-Aged Stands
Growth and Yield Models for Uneven-Aged Stands
Special Considerations in Modeling Uneven-Aged Stands
Growht and Yield Equations Based on Elasped Time
Size-Class Distribution Models Using Stand-Table Projection
Individual-Tree Models that Include Uneven-Aged Stands
Applying Growth and Yield Models
Enhancing Output from Growth and Yield Models
Choosing an Appropriate Growth and Yield Model
A Word of Caution
Problems
References
Assessing Rangeland, Wildlife, Water, and Recreational Resources
Purpose of Chapter
Measuring Rangeland Resources
Forage Resources
Planning Range Measurements
Sampling Considerations
Determining Grazing Capacity
Clipped-Plot Technique
Range-Utilization Estimates
Range Condition and Trend
Measuring Wildlife Resources
Animal Populations and Habitat
Population Estimates
Habitat Measurement
Measuring Water Resources
Importance of Water
Factors Affecting Runoff
Physical Characteristics of a Watershed
Measurement of Water Quantity
Measurement of Water Quality
Measuring Recreational Resources
The Problem
Visitor Use of Recreational Facilities
Assessing Potential Recreational Sites
Problems
References
Answers to Selected Problems
Glossay

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