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Management of a Sales Force

ISBN-10: 007352977X
ISBN-13: 9780073529776
Edition: 12th 2008 (Revised)
List price: $194.38
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Description: Updated to reflect the latest, cutting-edge issues, including technology and Internet selling, this book features a strong emphasis on relationship selling and particularly the use of team-selling. Most chapters have a 'team-box' highlighting the  More...

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Book details

List price: $194.38
Edition: 12th
Copyright year: 2008
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Higher Education
Publication date: 1/17/2007
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 608
Size: 8.25" wide x 10.25" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 3.146
Language: English

Updated to reflect the latest, cutting-edge issues, including technology and Internet selling, this book features a strong emphasis on relationship selling and particularly the use of team-selling. Most chapters have a 'team-box' highlighting the principles within a given chapter as they relate to managing selling teams.

William J. Stanton is professor emeritus of marketing at the University of Colorado-Boulder. He received his PhD in marketing from Northwestern University, where he was elected to Beta Gamma Sigma. He has worked in business and has taught in several management development programs for marketing executives. He has served as a consultant for various business organizations and has engaged in research projects for the federal government. Professor Stanton also has lectured at universities in Europe, Asia, Mexico, and New Zealand. A coauthor of the leading text in sales management, Professor Stanton has also published several journal articles and monographs. Marketing has been translated into Spanish, and separate editions have been adapted (with coauthors) for Canada, Italy, Australia, and South Africa. In a survey of marketing educators, Professor Stanton was voted one of the leaders in marketing thought. And he is listed in Who's Who in America and Who's Who in the World.

List of Cases
Introduction to Sales Force Management
The Field of Sales Force Management
Scope and Focus of This Book
The Nature of Personal Selling
Personal Selling and the Marketing Mix
Relationship Marketing and the Role of Personal Selling
The Nature of Sales Jobs
How Sales Jobs Differ from Other Jobs
New Dimensions of Personal Selling: The Professional Salesperson
The Nature of Sales Management
Role and Skills of a Sales Manager
Administration-A Distinct Skill
Levels of Sales Management Positions
How Sales Managers' Jobs Differ from Other Management Jobs
Importance of Personal Selling and Sales Management
In Our Economy
In an Individual Organization
To You, the Student
Sales Force Management Challenges in the 21st Century
Summary
Key Terms
Questions and Problems
Experiential Exercises
Internet Exercises
References
Strategic Sales Force Management
The Marketing System
External Environment
Internal Variables
The Marketing Concept and Marketing Management
Evolution of Marketing Management
Evolution of Selling in the United States
Relationship Marketing
Integrating Marketing and Sales Functions
Integrating Production and Sales
Strategic Planning
Objectives
Strategies
Tactics
Strategic Planning at the Company, Marketing, and Sales Force Levels
Strategic Planning for the Total Company
Strategic Marketing Planning
Sales Force Strategy
Strategic Trends
Internet Selling
Multiple Sales Channels
Multiple Relationship Strategies
Marketing Management's Social Responsibility
Summary
Key Terms
Questions and Problems
Experiential Exercises
Internet Exercises
References
The Personal Selling Process
Prospecting
Identifying Leads
Qualifying Leads
Preapproach: Planning the Sale
Customer Research
Planning the Sales Presentation
The Approach
Need Assessment
The Presentation
Product Demonstrations
Prepared Sales Presentations
Developing Effective Presentations
Meeting Objections
Price or Value Objections
Product/Service Objections
Procrastinating Objections
Hidden Objections
Gaining Commitment
Follow-Up
Summary
Key Terms
Questions and Problems
Experiential Exercises
Internet Exercises
References
Organizing, Staffing, and Training A Sales Force
Sales Force Organization
Nature of Sales Organizations
Sales Force Organization and Strategic Planning
Characteristics of a Good Organization
Role of an Informal Organization
Basic Types of Organizations
Specialization within a Sales Department
Geographic Specialization
Product Specialization
Market Specialization
Combination of Organizational Bases
Additional Strategic Organizational Alternatives
Strategic Account Management
Buying Centers and Team Selling
Independent Sales Organizations
E-Commerce and Telemarketing
Organizing for International Sales
Home-Country Intermediaries
Foreign-Country Intermediaries
Company Sales Force Operating Abroad
Summary
Key Terms
Questions and Problems
Experiential Exercises
Internet Exercise
References
Profiling and Recruiting Salespeople
Sales Force Selection and Strategic Planning
Importance of a Good Selection Program
The Law and Sales Force Selection
Scope of Sales Force Staffing Process
The Planning Phase
The Recruiting Phase
The Selection Phase
The Hiring and Assimilation Phases
Establishing Responsibility for Recruiting, Selection, and Assimilation
Determining the Number of People Needed
Developing a Profile of the Type of People Needed
Job Analysis
Job Description
Qualifications Needed to Fill the Job
Methods of Determining Qualifications
Recruiting and Its Importance
Need for Many Recruits
Finding and Maintaining Good Recruiting Sources
Sources for Recruiting Sales Representatives
Referrals
Current Employees
Other Companies: Competitors, Customers, Noncompetitors
The Internet
Educational Institutions
Advertisements
Employment Agencies
Part-Time Workers
Diversity
Minority Groups
Women
Recruiting Evaluation
Summary
Key Terms
Questions and Problems
Experiential Exercises
Internet Exercise
References
Selecting and Hiring Salespeople
Selection Tools and Strategic Planning
Legal Considerations
Application Blanks
Reasons for Using Application Blanks
Information Asked For on Application Blanks
Personal Interviews
Nature and Purpose
Reliability of Personal Interviews as Predictors of Success
Improving the Validity of Interviews
Interview Structure
Interview Focus
Timing and Method of the Interview
Psychological Testing
Legal Aspects of Testing
A Framework for Testing
Problems in Testing
References and Other Outside Sources
Background Checks
Legal Considerations
Assessment Centers
The Job Offer Decision
Ranking the Recruits
Communicating with Applicants
The Hiring Phase
Extending the Offer
Socialization and Assimilation
Preentry Socialization
Assimilation of New Hires
Meeting Social and Psychological Needs
Summary
Key Terms
Questions and Problems
Experiential Exercises
Internet Exercises
References
Developing, Delivering, and Reinforcing a Sales Training Program
The Value of Sales Training
Sales Training and Strategic Planning
Training Assessment
What Are the Training Program Objectives?
Who Should Be Trained?
What Are the Training Needs of the Individual Rep?
How Much Training Is Needed?
Program Design
Who Should Do the Training?
When Should the Training Take Place?
Where Should the Training Take Place?
What Should the Content of the Training Be?
What Teaching Methods Should Be Used?
Reinforcement
Training Evaluation
Summary
Key Terms
Questions and Problems
Experiential Exercises
Internet Exercise
References
Directing Sales Force Operations
Motivating a Sales Force
Motivation-What Is It?
Dimensions of Sales Motivation
Motivation and Strategic Planning
Importance of Motivation
Unique Nature of the Sales Job
Individuality of Salespeople
Diversity in Company Goals
Changes in Market Environment
Behavioral Concepts in Motivation
Understanding Individual Needs
Hierarchy of Needs Theory
Dual-Factor Theory
Expectancy Theory
Role Theory
Salesperson Characteristics
Selecting Effective Combinations of Motivational Tools
Financial Rewards
Compensation
Other Financial Rewards
Sales Contests
Nonfinancial Rewards
Job Enrichment and Support
Recognition and Honor Awards
Promotions
Encouragement and Praise
Corporate Culture
Sales Meetings
Purposes of Sales Meetings
Planning for Sales Meetings
Challenges and Changes in Sales Force Motivation
Plateaued Salespeople
Sales Force Segmentation
Motivation and Performance
Summary
Key Terms
Questions and Problems
Experiential Exercises
Internet Exercises
References
Sales Force Compensation
Sales Force Compensation and Strategic Planning
Objectives of a Compensation Plan
The Company's Perspective
The Salesperson's Perspective
Designing a Sales Compensation Plan
Some Useful Generalizations
Review Job Descriptions
Identify Specific Objectives
Establishing the Level of Compensation
Developing the Method of Compensation
Basic Types of Compensation Plans
Straight Salary Plans
Straight Commission Plans
Combination Plans
Linking the Method to the Objective
Indirect Monetary Compensation
Final Steps in Development of the Plan
Pretest the Plan
Introduce the Plan to the Sales Force
Install the Plan, Monitor It Continuously, and Evaluate It Periodically
Summary
Key Terms
Questions and Problems
Experiential Exercises
Internet Exercises
References
Sales Force Quotas and Expenses
Sales Quotas
Relation to Sales Potential
Sales Quotas and Strategic Management
Purposes of Sales Quotas
To Indicate Strong or Weak Spots in the Selling Structure
To Furnish Goals and Incentives for the Sales Force
To Control Salespeople's Activities
To Evaluate Productivity of Salespeople
To Improve Effectiveness of Compensation Plans
To Control Selling Expenses
To Evaluate Sales Contest Results
Types of Quotas
Sales Volume Quotas
Profit Quotas
Expense Quotas
Activity Quotas and Customer Satisfaction
Combination Quotas
Bases for Setting a Sales Volume Quota
Quotas Based on Sales Potential
Adjustments to Potential-Based Quotas
Quotas Based on Factors other than Potential
Administration of Sales Quotas
Typical Administrative Weaknesses
Gaining Sales Force Acceptance of a Quota Plan
Sales Force Expenses
Sales Force Expenses and Strategic Planning
Internal Revenue Service Regulations
Legitimate Travel and Business Expenses
Characteristics of a Sound Expense Plan
No Net Gain or Loss for the Reps
Equitable Treatment of the Reps
No Curtailment of Beneficial Activities
Minimal Detail and Administrative Expense
Clarity
Company Control of Expenses and Elimination of Padding
Methods of Controlling Expenses
Salespeople Pay Own Expenses
Unlimited-Payment Plans
Limited-Payment Plans
Combination Plans
Control of Sales Force Transportation
Ownership or Leasing of Automobiles
Reimbursement Plans for Employee-Owned Cars
Other Methods of Expense Control
Training and Enforcement
Credit Cards
The Expense Bank Account
Change in Nature of Entertainment
Internet Selling and Telemarketing
Careful Travel Planning
Summary
Key Terms
Questions and Problems
Experiential Exercises
Internet Exercises
References
Leadership of a Sales Force
Leadership Characteristics and Skills
Personal Characteristics
Managerial Skills
Leadership Style
Transactional Leadership
Transformational Leadership
Situational Leadership
Leadership and Strategic Planning
Tools and Techniques of Leadership
Personal Contact
Sales Reports
Telecommunications
Printed Aids
Meetings
Indirect Supervisory Aids
Outcomes of Effective Leadership
Well-Trained Salespeople
Trust among Salespeople
Citizenship Behaviors
Better Performance
Sales Force Morale
Problems Encountered in Leadership
Poor Performance
Substance Abuse
Expense Accounts
Unethical Behavior
Sexual Harassment
Summary
Key Terms
Questions and Problems
Experiential Exercises
Internet Exercises
References
Sales Planning
Forecasting Sales and Developing Budgets
Sales Forecasting and Strategic and Operational Planning
Explanation of Basic Terms
Market Potential and Sales Potential
Sales Forecast
Estimating Market and Sales Potentials
Customer Analysis
Market-Factor Derivation
Surveys of Buyer Intentions
Test Markets
Territory Potentials
Sales Forecasting
Difficulty of Sales Forecasting
Sales Forecasting Periods
Factors Influencing the Sales Forecast
Sales Forecasting Methods
Executive Opinion
Sales Force Composite
Moving Average Technique
Exponential Smoothing Models
Regression Analysis
"Must Do" Forecasts
Capacity-Based Forecasts
Some Guiding Principles for Forecasting
Fit the Method to the Product / Market
Use More than One Method
Minimize the Number of Market Factors
Recognize the Limitations of Forecasting
Use the Minimum / Maximum Technique
Understand Mathematics and Statistics
Review the Forecasting Process
Developing Budgets
Purposes of Budgeting
Planning
Coordination
Evaluation
Determining the Sales Budget
Budgeting by the Percentage-of-Sales Method
Budgeting by the Object-and-Task Method
Budgets for Sales Department Activities
The Sales Budget
The Selling-Expense Budget
The Administrative Budget
The Budgeting Process for the Firm
Budget Periods
Summary
Key Terms
Questions and Problems
Experiential Exercises
Internet Exercise
References
Sales Territories
Nature and Benefits of Territories
Designing Territories
Determine Basic Control Unit for Territorial Boundaries
Determine Location and Potential of Customers
Determine Basic Territories
Using Computers in Territory Design
Assigning Salespeople to Territories
Revising Sales Territories
Indications of Need for Adjustment
Why Are So Many Sales Territories Unbalanced?
Territorial Coverage-Managing a Sales Rep's Time
Routing the Sales Force
Time Management and Computer Support Systems
Summary
Key Terms
Questions and Problems
Experiential Exercises
Internet Exercises
References
Evaluating Sales Performance
Analysis of Sales Volume
Strategic Relationship between Planning and Evaluation
Relation of Performance Evaluation to Sales Control
Introduction to Sales Force Performance Evaluation
A Marketing Audit: A Total Evaluation Program
A Sales Management Audit
The Evaluation Process
Components of Performance Evaluation
Performance Evaluation and Misdirected Marketing Effort
Nature of Misdirected Marketing Effort: The 80-20 Principle
Reasons for Misdirected Effort
The Need for Detailed Data
Bases for Analyzing Sales Volume
Total Sales Volume
Sales by Territories
Sales by Products
Sales by Customer Classifications
The Insufficiency of Sales Volume Analysis
Sales Force Automation and Performance Evaluation
Summary
Key Terms
Questions and Problems
Experiential Exercises
Internet Exercises
References
Marketing Cost and Profitability Analysis
Nature and Scope of Marketing Cost Analysis
Marketing Cost Analysis and the Accounting System
Marketing Cost Analysis Compared with Production Cost Accounting
Types of Marketing Cost Analysis
Analysis of Ledger Expenses
Analysis of Activity Expenses
Analysis of Activity Costs by Market Segments
Problems in Marketing Cost Analysis
Allocating Costs
The Contribution-Margin versus Full-Cost Controversy
Use of Findings from Profitability Analysis
Territorial Decisions
Products
Customer/Size of Order
Return on Investment-An Evaluation Tool
Use of Return on Assets Managed to Evaluate Field Sales Managers
Summary
Key Terms
Questions and Problems
Experiential Exercises
Internet Exercise
References
Evaluating a Salesperson's Performance
Nature and Importance of Performance Evaluation
Concept of Evaluation and Development
Concept of Evaluation and Direction
Importance of Performance Evaluation
Difficulties Involved in Evaluating Performance
Importance of a Good Job Description
Program for Evaluating Performance
Establish Some Basic Policies
Select Bases for Evaluation
Set Performance Standards
Compare Performance Standards
Discuss the Evaluation with the Salesperson
Using Evaluation Data: An Example
Joe's Sales Performance
Gus's Sales Performance
Paula's Sales Performance
The Sales Manager's Decisions
Summary
Key Terms
Questions and Problems
Experiential Exercises
Internet Exercises
References
Ethical and Legal Responsibilities of Sales Managers
Business Ethics and Sales Management
The Legal-Ethical Confusion
The Pressure to Compromise Personal Ethics
The Problem of Determining Ethical Standards
Ethical Situations Facing Salespeople and Sales Executives
Establish an Ethical Climate
Public Regulation and Sales Managers
Price Discrimination
Unfair Competition
Green River Ordinances
Cooling-Off Laws
Current Problems
Summary
Key Terms
Questions and Problems
Experiential Exercises
Internet Exercises
References
Integrated Cases
Careers in Sales Management
The Challenge
Career Paths in Sales Management
The Rewards of a Sales Management Job
What It Takes to Be a Successful Sales Manager
Your Strategic Career Plan
Final Word
Reference
Indexes
Name Index
Company Index
Subject Index

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