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What Is Statistics? | |

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Introduction | |

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Why Study Statistics? | |

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What Is Meant by Statistics? | |

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Types of Statistics | |

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Descriptive Statistics | |

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Inferential Statistics | |

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Types of Variables | |

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Levels of Measurement | |

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Nominal-Level Data | |

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Ordinal-Level Data | |

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Interval-Level Data | |

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Ratio-Level Data | |

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Exercises | |

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Statistics, Graphics, and Ethics | |

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Misleading Statistics | |

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Association Does Not Necessarily Imply Causation | |

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Graphs Can Be Misleading | |

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Become a Better Consumer and a Better Producer of Information | |

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Ethics | |

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Software Applications | |

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Chapter Outline | |

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Chapter Exercises | |

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exercises.com | |

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Dataset Exercises | |

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Answers to Self-Review | |

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Describing Data: Frequency Distributions and Graphic Presentation | |

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Introduction | |

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Constructing a Frequency Distribution | |

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Class Intervals and Class Midpoints | |

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A Software Example | |

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Relative Frequency Distribution | |

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Exercises | |

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Graphic Presentation of a Frequency Distribution | |

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Histogram | |

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Frequency Polygon | |

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Exercises | |

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Cumulative Frequency Distributions | |

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Exercises | |

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Other Graphic Presentations of Data | |

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Line Graphs | |

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Bar Charts | |

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Pie Charts | |

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Exercises | |

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Chapter Outline | |

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Chapter Exercises | |

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exercises.com | |

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Dataset Exercises | |

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Software Commands | |

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Answers to Self-Review | |

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Describing Data: Numerical Measures | |

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Introduction | |

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The Population Mean | |

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The Sample Mean | |

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Properties of the Arithmetic Mean | |

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Exercises | |

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The Weighted Mean | |

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Exercises | |

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The Median | |

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The Mode | |

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Exercises | |

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Software Solution | |

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The Relative Positions of the Mean, Median, and Mode | |

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Exercises | |

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The Geometric Mean | |

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Exercises | |

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Why Study Dispersion? | |

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Measures of Dispersion | |

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Range | |

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Mean Deviation | |

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Exercises | |

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Variance and Standard Deviation | |

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Exercises | |

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Software Solution | |

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Exercises | |

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Interpretation and Uses of the Standard Deviation | |

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Chebyshev's Theorem | |

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The Empirical Rule | |

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Exercises | |

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Chapter Outline | |

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Pronunciation Key | |

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Chapter Exercises | |

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exercises.com | |

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Dataset Exercises | |

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Software Commands | |

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Answers to Self-Review | |

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Describing Data: Displaying and Exploring Data | |

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Introduction | |

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Dot Plots | |

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Exercises | |

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Quartiles, Deciles, and Percentiles | |

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Exercises | |

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Box Plots | |

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Exercises | |

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Skewness | |

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Exercises | |

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Describing the Relationship between Two Variables | |

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Exercises | |

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Chapter Outline | |

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Pronunciation Key | |

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Chapter Exercises | |

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exercises.com | |

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Dataset Exercises | |

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Software Commands | |

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Answers to Self-Review | |

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A Survey of Probability Concepts | |

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Introduction | |

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What Is a Probability? | |

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Approaches to Assigning Probabilities | |

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Classical Probability | |

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Empirical Probability | |

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Subjective Probability | |

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Exercises | |

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Some Rules for Computing Probabilities | |

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Rules of Addition | |

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Exercises | |

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Rules of Multiplication | |

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Contingency Tables | |

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Tree Diagrams | |

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Exercises | |

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Principles of Counting | |

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The Multiplication Formula | |

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The Permutation Formula | |

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The Combination Formula | |

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Exercises | |

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Chapter Outline | |

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Pronunciation Key | |

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Chapter Exercises | |

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exercises.com | |

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Dataset Exercises | |

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Software Commands | |

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Answers to Self-Review | |

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Discrete Probability Distributions | |

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Introduction | |

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What Is a Probability Distribution? | |

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Random Variables | |

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Discrete Random Variable | |

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Continuous Random Variable | |

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The Mean, Variance, and Standard Deviation of a Probability Distribution | |

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Mean | |

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Variance and Standard Distribution | |

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Exercises | |

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Binomial Probability Distribution | |

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How Is a Binomial Probability Distribution Computed | |

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Binomial Probability Tables | |

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Exercises | |

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Cumulative Binomial Probability Distributions | |

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Exercises | |

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Poisson Probability Distribution | |

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Exercises | |

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Chapter Outline | |

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Chapter Exercises | |

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Dataset Exercises | |

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Software Commands | |

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Answers to Self-Review | |

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Continuous Probability Distributions | |

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Introduction | |

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The Family of Uniform Distributions | |

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Exercises | |

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The Family of Normal Probability Distributions | |

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The Standard Normal Distribution | |

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The Empirical Rule | |

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Exercises | |

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Finding Areas under the Normal Curve | |

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Exercises | |

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Exercises | |

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Exercises | |

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Chapter Outline | |

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Chapter Exercises | |

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Dataset Exercises | |

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Software Commands | |

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Answers to Self-Review | |

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Sampling Methods and the Central Limit Theorem | |

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Introduction | |

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Sampling Methods | |

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Reasons to Sample | |

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Simple Random Sampling | |

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Systematic Random Sampling | |

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Stratified Random Sampling | |

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Cluster Sampling | |

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Exercises | |

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Sampling "Error" | |

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Sampling Distribution of the Sample Mean | |

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Exercises | |

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The Central Limit Theorem | |

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Exercises | |

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Using the Sampling Distribution of the Sample Mean | |

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Exercises | |

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Chapter Outline | |

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Pronunciation Key | |

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Chapter Exercises | |

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exercises.com | |

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Dataset Exercises | |

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Software Commands | |

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Answers to Self-Review | |

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Estimation and Confidence Intervals | |

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Introduction | |

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Point Estimates and Confidence Intervals | |

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Known [sigma] or a Large Sample | |

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A Computer Simulation | |

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Exercises | |

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Unknown Population Standard Deviation and a Small Sample | |

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Exercises | |

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A Confidence Interval for a Proportion | |

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Exercises | |

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Finite-Population Correction Factor | |

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Exercises | |

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Choosing an Appropriate Sample Size | |

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Exercises | |

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Chapter Outline | |

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Pronunciation Key | |

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Chapter Exercises | |

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exercises.com | |

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Dataset Exercises | |

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Software Commands | |

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Answers to Self-Review | |

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One-Sample Tests of Hypothesis | |

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Introduction | |

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What Is a Hypothesis? | |

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What Is Hypothesis Testing? | |

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Five-Step Procedure for Testing a Hypothesis | |

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State the Null Hypothesis (H[subscript 0]) and the Alternate Hypothesis (H[subscript 1]) | |

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Select a Level of Significance | |

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Select the Test Statistic | |

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Formulate the Decision Rule | |

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Make a Decision | |

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One-Tailed and Two-Tailed Tests of Significance | |

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Testing for a Population Mean with a Known Population Standard Deviation | |

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A Two-Tailed Test | |

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A One-Tailed Test | |

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p-Value in Hypothesis Testing | |

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Testing for a Population Mean: Large Sample, Population Standard Deviation Unknown | |

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Exercises | |

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Tests Concerning Proportions | |

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Exercises | |

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Testing for a Population Mean: Small Sample, Population Standard Deviation Unknown | |

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Exercises | |

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A Software Solution | |

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Exercises | |

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Chapter Outline | |

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Pronunciation Key | |

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Chapter Exercises | |

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exercises.com | |

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Dataset Exercises | |

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Software Commands | |

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Answers to Self-Review | |

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Two-Sample Tests of Hypothesis | |

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Introduction | |

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Two-Sample Tests of Hypothesis: Independent Samples | |

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Exercises | |

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Two-Sample Tests about Proportions | |

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Exercises | |

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Comparing Population Means with Small Samples | |

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Exercises | |

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Two-Sample Tests of Hypothesis: Dependent Samples | |

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Comparing Dependent and Independent Samples | |

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Exercises | |

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Chapter Outline | |

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Pronunciation Key | |

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Chapter Exercises | |

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exercises.com | |

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Dataset Exercises | |

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Software Commands | |

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Answers to Self-Review | |

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Analysis of Variance | |

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Introduction | |

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The F Distribution | |

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Comparing Two Population Variances | |

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Exercises | |

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ANOVA Assumptions | |

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The ANOVA Test | |

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Exercises | |

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Inferences about Pairs of Treatment Means | |

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Exercises | |

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Chapter Outline | |

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Pronunciation Key | |

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Chapter Exercises | |

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exercises.com | |

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Dataset Exercises | |

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Software Commands | |

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Answers to Self-Review | |

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Linear Regression and Correlation | |

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Introduction | |

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What Is Correlation Analysis? | |

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The Coefficient of Correlation | |

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The Coefficient of Determination | |

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Correlation and Cause | |

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Exercises | |

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Testing the Significance of the Correlation Coefficient | |

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Exercises | |

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Regression Analysis | |

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Least Squares Principle | |

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Drawing the Line of Regression | |

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Exercises | |

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The Standard Error of Estimate | |

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Assumptions Underlying Linear Regression | |

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Exercises | |

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Confidence and Prediction Intervals | |

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Exercises | |

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More on the Coefficient of Determination | |

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Exercises | |

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The Relationships among the Coefficient of Correlation, the Coefficient of Determination, and the Standard Error of Estimate | |

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Transforming Data | |

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Exercises | |

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Chapter Outline | |

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Pronunciation Key | |

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Chapter Exercises | |

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exercises.com | |

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Dataset Exercises | |

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Software Commands | |

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Answers to Self-Review | |

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Multiple Regression and Correlation Analysis | |

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Introduction | |

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Multiple Regression Analysis | |

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Inferences in Multiple Linear Regression | |

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Exercises | |

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Multiple Standard Error of Estimate | |

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Assumptions about Multiple Regression and Correlation | |

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The ANOVA Table | |

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Exercises | |

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Evaluating the Regression Equation | |

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Using a Scatter Diagram | |

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Correlation Matrix | |

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Global Test: Testing the Multiple Regression Model | |

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Evaluating Individual Regression Coefficients | |

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Qualitative Independent Variables | |

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Exercises | |

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Analysis of Residuals | |

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Chapter Outline | |

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Pronunciation Key | |

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Chapter Exercises | |

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exercises.com | |

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Dataset Exercises | |

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Software Commands | |

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Answers to Self-Review | |

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Chi-Square Applications | |

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Introduction | |

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Goodness-of-Fit Test: Equal Expected Frequencies | |

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Exercises | |

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Goodness-of-Fit Test: Unequal Expected Frequencies | |

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Limitations of Chi-Square | |

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Exercises | |

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Contingency Table Analysis | |

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Exercises | |

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Chapter Outline | |

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Pronunciation Key | |

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Chapter Exercises | |

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exercises.com | |

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Dataset Exercises | |

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Software Commands | |

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Answers to Self-Review | |

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CD Chapters | |

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Statistical Quality Control | |

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Time Series and Forecasting | |

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Appendixes | |

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Tables | |

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Binomial Probability Distribution | |

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Critical Values of Chi-Square | |

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Poisson Distribution | |

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Areas under the Normal Curve | |

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Table of Random Numbers | |

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Student's t Distribution | |

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Critical Values of the F Distribution | |

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Wilcoxon T Values | |

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Factors for Control Charts | |

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Datasets | |

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Real Estate | |

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Major League Baseball | |

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Wages and Wage Earners | |

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CIA International Economic and Demographic Data | |

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Whitner Autoplex | |

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Getting Started with Megastat | |

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Visual Statistics | |

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Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises | |

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Photo Credits | |

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Index | |