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Elementary Statistics

ISBN-10: 0072316942
ISBN-13: 9780072316940
Edition: 4th 2001
Authors: Allan G. Bluman
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Description: New edition of a beginning statistics text for students whose mathematical background is limited to basic algebra. Bluman (Community College of Allegheny County) uses a nontheoretical approach in which concepts are explained intuitively and are  More...

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Book details

Edition: 4th
Copyright year: 2001
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Companies, The
Binding: Hardcover
Size: 8.00" wide x 10.00" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 3.542
Language: English

New edition of a beginning statistics text for students whose mathematical background is limited to basic algebra. Bluman (Community College of Allegheny County) uses a nontheoretical approach in which concepts are explained intuitively and are supported by examples. There are no formal proofs, and the applications include problems from business, economics, health, medicine, science, engineering, social science, education, and topics of general interest. Each of the eight chapters begins with an outline and a list of learning objectives. Contains a removable foldout of important formulas. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR

Allan G. Bluman is Professor of Mathematics at Community College of Allegheny County, near Pittsburgh. For the McKeesport and New Kensington Campuses of Pennsylvania State University, he has taught teacher-certification and graduate education statistics courses. Prior to his college teaching, he taught mathematics at a junior high school. Professor Bluman received his B.S. from California State College in California, Penn.; his M.Ed. from the University of Pittsburgh; and, in 1971, his Ed.D., also from the University of Pittsburgh. His major field of study was mathematics education. In addition to Elementary Statistics: A Step by Step Approach, Third Edition, and Elementary Statistics: A Brief Version, the author has published several professional articles and the Modern Math Fun Book (Cuisenaire Publishing Company). He has spoken and presided at national and local mathematics conferences and has served as newsletter editor for the Pennsylvania State Mathematics Association of Two-Year Colleges. He is a member of the American Statistical Association, the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, and the Mathematics Council of Western Pennsylvania. Al Bluman is married and has two children. His hobbies include writing, bicycling, and swimming.

The Nature of Probability and Statisticsp. 1
Statistics Today: Are We Improving Our Diet?p. 2
Introductionp. 2
Speaking of Statistics: The Perfect Burgerp. 4
Descriptive and Inferential Statisticsp. 4
Speaking of Statistics: Super Snack Statsp. 5
Speaking of Statistics: Risks in the Homep. 6
Variables and Types of Datap. 7
Speaking of Statistics: Height Fright Not Rightp. 8
Data Collection and Sampling Techniquesp. 10
Random Samplingp. 11
Systematic Samplingp. 11
Speaking of Statistics: Surviving Bad Days at Workp. 12
Stratified Samplingp. 12
Cluster Samplingp. 12
Speaking of Statistics: How Often Does Your Family Eat Dinner at Home Together?p. 13
Speaking of Statistics: Shake and Wakep. 14
Other Sampling Methodsp. 14
Observational and Experimental Studiesp. 15
Computers and Calculatorsp. 17
Technology Step by Stepp. 17
Summaryp. 22
Frequency Distributions and Graphsp. 30
Statistics Today: Are We Flying More?p. 31
Introductionp. 32
Organizing Datap. 32
Categorical Frequency Distributionsp. 33
Grouped Frequency Distributionsp. 34
Technology Step by Stepp. 43
Histograms, Frequency Polygons, and Ogivesp. 44
The Histogramp. 45
The Frequency Polygonp. 47
The Ogivep. 48
Relative Frequency Graphsp. 50
Technology Step by Stepp. 55
Other Types of Graphsp. 58
Pareto Chartsp. 58
The Time Series Graphp. 60
Speaking of Statistics: Pennsylvania Coal Productionp. 61
The Pie Graphp. 62
Misleading Graphsp. 65
Speaking of Statistics: Costliest Big Cities for Drivingp. 69
Technology Step by Stepp. 71
Speaking of Statistics: Budget Deficit Dropsp. 72
Summaryp. 73
Data Descriptionp. 80
Statistics Today: Who Is a Typical First-Time Home Buyer?p. 81
Introductionp. 81
Measures of Central Tendencyp. 82
The Meanp. 83
Speaking of Statistics: Big Spendersp. 85
The Medianp. 86
The Modep. 89
Speaking of Statistics: Leave the Driving to...p. 91
The Midrangep. 91
The Weighted Meanp. 92
Distribution Shapesp. 94
Measures of Variationp. 99
Rangep. 100
Variance and Standard Deviationp. 101
The Unbiased Estimatorp. 104
Variance and Standard Deviation for Grouped Datap. 105
Coefficient of Variationp. 108
Chebyshev's Theoremp. 109
The Empirical (Normal) Rulep. 111
Measures of Postionp. 115
Standard Scoresp. 115
Percentilesp. 116
Quartiles and Decilesp. 123
Outliersp. 124
Technology Step by Stepp. 127
Exploratory Data Analysisp. 130
Stem and Leaf Plotsp. 130
Boxplotsp. 133
Technology Step by Stepp. 137
Summaryp. 140
Counting Techniquesp. 149
Statistics Today: Why Are We Running Out of 800 Numbers?p. 150
Introductionp. 151
Tree Diagrams and the Multiplication Rule for Countingp. 151
The Multiplication Rule for Countingp. 153
Permutations and Combinationsp. 156
Factorial Level Notationp. 156
Permutationsp. 156
Combinationsp. 158
Summaryp. 162
Probabilityp. 166
Statistics Today: Would You Bet Your Life?p. 167
Introductionp. 168
Sample Spaces and Probabilityp. 168
Basic Conceptsp. 168
Classical Probabilityp. 171
Complementary Eventsp. 174
Empirical Probabilityp. 175
Law of Large Numbersp. 177
Subjective Probabilityp. 178
Probability and Risk Takingp. 178
The Addition Rules for Probabilityp. 181
Speaking of Statistics: CEO Profilep. 182
The Multiplication Rules and Conditional Probabilityp. 188
The Multiplication Rulesp. 188
Conditional Probabilityp. 193
Probabilities for "At Least"p. 195
Probability and Counting Techniques (Optional)p. 199
Summaryp. 202
Discrete Probability Distributionsp. 209
Statistics Today: Are the Rockets Hitting the Targets?p. 210
Introductionp. 210
Probability Distributionsp. 211
Mean, Variance, and Expectationp. 215
Meanp. 215
Variancep. 218
Expectationp. 220
The Binomial Distributionp. 224
Technology Step by Stepp. 232
Other Types of Distributions (Optional)p. 234
The Multinomial Distributionp. 234
The Poisson Distributionp. 235
The Hypergeometric Distributionp. 237
Summaryp. 241
The Normal Distributionp. 247
Statistics Today: What Is Normal?p. 248
Introductionp. 248
Properties of the Normal Distributionp. 250
The Standard Normal Distributionp. 251
Finding Areas under the Standard Normal Distribution Curvep. 253
The Normal Distribution Curve as a Probability Distribution Curvep. 260
Applications of the Normal Distributionp. 264
Finding Data Values Given Specific Probabilitiesp. 268
Technology Step by Stepp. 273
The Central Limit Theoremp. 274
Distribution of Sample Meansp. 275
Finite Population Correction Factor (Optional)p. 281
The Normal Approximation to the Binomial Distributionp. 284
Summaryp. 290
Confidence Intervals and Sample Sizep. 296
Statistics Today: Would You Change the Channel?p. 297
Introductionp. 298
Confidence Intervals for the Mean ([sigma] Known or n [greater than or equal] 30) and Sample Sizep. 299
Confidence Intervalsp. 299
Sample Sizep. 305
Technology Step by Stepp. 309
Confidence Intervals for the Mean ([sigma] Unknown and n [ 30)p. 311
Technology Step by Stepp. 316
Confidence Intervals and Sample Size for Proportionsp. 318
Confidence Intervalsp. 319
Sample Size for Proportionsp. 320
Technology Step by Stepp. 323
Confidence Intervals for Variances and Standard Deviationsp. 325
Summaryp. 329
Hypothesis Testingp. 335
Statistics Today: How Much Better Is Better?p. 336
Introductionp. 337
Steps in Hypothesis Testing--Traditional Methodp. 337
z Test for a Meanp. 349
Speaking of Statistics: Stick Margarine May Boost Risk of Heart Attacksp. 350
P-Value Method for Hypothesis Testingp. 354
Technology Step by Stepp. 361
t Test for a Meanp. 363
Technology Step by Stepp. 371
z Test for a Proportionp. 372
Technology Step by Stepp. 377
x[superscript 2] Test for a Variance or Standard Deviationp. 378
Technology Step by Stepp. 386
Additional Topics Regarding Hypothesis Testingp. 387
Confidence Intervals and Hypothesis Testingp. 387
Type II Error and the Power of a Testp. 388
Summaryp. 391
Testing the Difference between Two Means, Two Variances, and Two Proportionsp. 398
Statistics Today: To Vaccinate or Not to Vaccinate? Small or Large?p. 399
Introductionp. 399
Testing the Difference between Two Means: Large Samplesp. 400
Technology Step by Stepp. 408
Testing the Difference between Two Variancesp. 412
Technology Step by Stepp. 420
Testing the Difference between Two Means: Small Independent Samplesp. 424
Technology Step by Stepp. 429
Testing the Difference between Two Means: Small Dependent Samplesp. 433
Speaking of Statistics: Public School Teachers Show Bias for Boysp. 434
Speaking of Statistics: Pedaling a Solution for Couch-Potato Kidsp. 442
Technology Step by Stepp. 443
Testing the Difference between Proportionsp. 446
Technology Step by Stepp. 451
Summaryp. 453
Hypothesis-Testing Summary 1p. 460
Correlation and Regressionp. 462
Statistics Today: Do Dust Storms Affect Respiratory Health?p. 463
Introductionp. 463
Scatter Plotsp. 464
Correlationp. 468
Correlation Coefficientp. 468
The Significance of the Correlation Coefficientp. 471
Correlation and Causationp. 474
Speaking of Statistics: Coffee Not Disease Culprit, Study Saysp. 476
Regressionp. 478
Line of Best Fitp. 478
Determination of the Regression Line Equationp. 479
Technology Step by Stepp. 485
Coefficient of Determination and Standard Error of Estimatep. 490
Types of Variation for the Regression Modelp. 490
Coefficient of Determinationp. 492
Standard Error of Estimatep. 492
Prediction Intervalp. 495
Multiple Regression (Optional)p. 497
Speaking of Statistics: Computer Use Declines as Girls Agep. 498
The Multiple Regression Equationp. 499
Testing the Significance of Rp. 500
Adjusted R[superscript 2]p. 501
Technology Step by Stepp. 503
Summaryp. 504
Other Chi-Square Testsp. 510
Statistics Today: Statistics and Heredityp. 511
Introductionp. 511
Test for Goodness of Fitp. 512
Test of Normality (Optional)p. 517
Technology Step by Stepp. 521
Tests Using Contingency Tablesp. 523
Test for Independencep. 523
Test for Homogeneity of Proportionsp. 528
Speaking of Statistics: Ignoring Commercialsp. 531
Speaking of Statistics: At Least They're Checking for Radonp. 532
Technology Step by Stepp. 535
Summaryp. 537
Analysis of Variancep. 543
Statistics Today: Is Seeing Really Believing?p. 544
Introductionp. 544
One-Way Analysis of Variancep. 545
Technology Step by Stepp. 551
The Scheffe Test and the Tukey Testp. 554
Scheffe Testp. 554
Speaking of Statistics: Coffee Doesn't Increase Risk of Heart Diseasep. 555
Tukey Testp. 556
Two-Way Analysis of Variancep. 560
Technology Step by Stepp. 571
Summaryp. 574
Hypothesis-Testing Summary 2p. 580
Nonparametric Statisticsp. 582
Statistics Today: Too Much or Too Little?p. 583
Introductionp. 583
Advantages and Disadvantages of Nonparametric Methodsp. 584
Advantagesp. 584
Disadvantagesp. 584
Rankingp. 585
Speaking of Statistics: New Hampshire, Exemplary State of Healthp. 586
The Sign Testp. 586
Single-Sample Sign Testp. 586
Paired-Sample Sign Testp. 589
Technology Step by Stepp. 593
The Wilcoxon Rank Sum Testp. 594
Technology Step by Stepp. 598
The Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Testp. 599
Speaking of Statistics: Changes in Police Force Sizep. 603
Speaking of Statistics: Lacrosse by the Numbersp. 604
Technology Step by Stepp. 604
The Kruskal-Wallis Testp. 605
Technology Step by Stepp. 610
The Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient and the Runs Testp. 610
Rank Correlation Coefficientp. 611
Speaking of Statistics: Stock Permitsp. 613
The Runs Testp. 614
Technology Step by Stepp. 620
Summaryp. 620
Speaking of Statistics: Pessimism Linked to Early Deathp. 621
Hypothesis-Testing Summary 3p. 627
Sampling and Simulationp. 629
Statistics Today: No Room in the Van?p. 630
Introductionp. 630
Common Sampling Techniquesp. 631
Random Samplingp. 631
Speaking of Statistics: Odds Stacked against Leftiesp. 633
Systematic Samplingp. 636
Stratified Samplingp. 637
Cluster Samplingp. 639
Other Types of Sampling Techniquesp. 640
Speaking of Statistics: Help, I've Failed and I Can't Get Upp. 641
Technology Step by Stepp. 643
Surveys and Questionnaire Designp. 645
Simulation Techniquesp. 647
The Monte Carlo Methodp. 648
Summaryp. 653
Algebra Reviewp. 658
Writing the Research Reportp. 663
Bayes's Theoremp. 664
Tablesp. 668
Data Bankp. 697
Glossaryp. 705
Bibliographyp. 711
Photo Creditsp. 713
Selected Answersp. 714
Instructor's Section: Instructor's Edition Onlyp. 761
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