Theory and Problems of Beginning Statistics

ISBN-10: 0071459324

ISBN-13: 9780071459327

Edition: 2nd 2006 (Revised)

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Description: Larry Stephens explains basic statistical concepts for students on introductory statistics courses. Concepts have been simplified to make this text accessible to students who need to study statistics as part of their social science or business course.

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Book details

List price: $18.95
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2006
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Companies, The
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 416
Size: 8.00" wide x 10.50" long x 0.50" tall
Weight: 1.584
Language: English

Larry Stephens, Ph.D., (Omaha, NE) is Professor of Mathematics at the University of Nebraska and is also the author of several books.

Introductionp. 1
Statisticsp. 1
Descriptive Statisticsp. 1
Inferential Statistics: Population and Samplep. 1
Variable, Observation, and Data Setp. 2
Quantitative Variable: Discrete and Continuous Variablep. 3
Qualitative Variablep. 4
Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, and Ratio Levels of Measurementp. 5
Summation Notationp. 6
Computer Software and Statisticsp. 8
Organizing Datap. 16
Raw Datap. 16
Frequency Distribution for Qualitative Datap. 16
Relative Frequency of a Categoryp. 17
Percentagep. 17
Bar Graphp. 17
Pie Chartp. 18
Frequency Distribution for Quantitative Datap. 19
Class Limits, Class Boundaries, Class Marks, and Class Widthp. 20
Single-Valued Classesp. 21
Histogramsp. 22
Cumulative Frequency Distributionsp. 24
Cumulative Relative Frequency Distributionsp. 24
Ogivesp. 24
Stem-and-Leaf Displaysp. 25
Descriptive Measuresp. 46
Measures of Central Tendencyp. 46
Mean, Median, and Mode for Ungrouped Datap. 46
Measures of Dispersionp. 48
Range, Variance, and Standard Deviation for Ungrouped Datap. 49
Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion for Grouped Datap. 51
Chebyshev's Theoremp. 52
Empirical Rulep. 53
Coefficient of Variationp. 53
Z Scoresp. 53
Measures of Position: Percentiles, Deciles, and Quartilesp. 54
Interquartile Rangep. 56
Box-and-Whisker Plotp. 56
Probabilityp. 71
Experiment, Outcomes, and Sample Spacep. 71
Tree Diagrams and the Counting Rulep. 71
Events, Simple Events, and Compound Eventsp. 73
Probabilityp. 73
Classical, Relative Frequency and Subjective Probability Definitionsp. 74
Marginal and Conditional Probabilitiesp. 76
Mutually Exclusive Eventsp. 77
Dependent and Independent Eventsp. 78
Complementary Eventsp. 79
Multiplication Rule for the Intersection of Eventsp. 79
Addition Rule for the Union of Eventsp. 80
Bayes' Theoremp. 81
Permutations and Combinationsp. 82
Using Permutations and Combinations to Solve Probability Problemsp. 83
Discrete Random Variablesp. 98
Random Variablep. 98
Discrete Random Variablep. 98
Continuous Random Variablep. 99
Probability Distributionp. 99
Mean of a Discrete Random Variablep. 100
Standard Deviation of a Discrete Random Variablep. 101
Binomial Random Variablep. 102
Binomial Probability Formulap. 103
Tables of the Binomial Distributionp. 105
Mean and Standard Deviation of a Binomial Random Variablep. 106
Poisson Random Variablep. 106
Poisson Probability Formulap. 107
Hypergeometric Random Variablep. 108
Hypergeometric Probability Formulap. 109
Continuous Random Variables and Their Probability Distributionsp. 124
Uniform Probability Distributionp. 124
Mean and Standard Deviation for the Uniform Probability Distributionp. 125
Normal Probability Distributionp. 126
Standard Normal Distributionp. 128
Standardizing a Normal Distributionp. 132
Applications of the Normal Distributionp. 132
Determining the z and x Values When an Area under the Normal Curve is Knownp. 135
Normal Approximation to the Binomial Distributionp. 137
Exponential Probability Distributionp. 139
Probabilities for the Exponential Probability Distributionp. 140
Sampling Distributionsp. 152
Simple Random Samplingp. 152
Using Random Number Tablesp. 152
Using the Computer to Obtain a Simple Random Samplep. 153
Systematic Random Samplingp. 154
Cluster Samplingp. 154
Stratified Samplingp. 154
Sampling Distribution of the Sampling Meanp. 154
Sampling Errorp. 156
Mean and Standard Deviation of the Sample Meanp. 156
Shape of the Sampling Distribution of the Sample Mean and the Central Limit Theoremp. 158
Applications of the Sampling Distribution of the Sample Meanp. 158
Sampling Distribution of the Sample Proportionp. 160
Mean and Standard Deviation of the Sample Proportionp. 161
Shape of the Sampling Distribution of the Sample Proportion and the Central Limit Theoremp. 162
Applications of the Sampling Distribution of the Sample Proportionp. 163
Estimation and Sample Size Determination: One Populationp. 179
Point Estimatep. 179
Interval Estimatep. 179
Confidence Interval for the Population Mean: Large Samplesp. 179
Maximum Error of Estimate for the Population Meanp. 181
The t Distributionp. 182
Confidence Interval for the Population Mean: Small Samplesp. 184
Confidence Interval for the Population Proportion: Large Samplesp. 187
Determining the Sample Size for the Estimation of the Population Meanp. 188
Determining the Sample Size for the Estimation of the Population Proportionp. 189
Tests of Hypotheses: One Populationp. 200
Null Hypothesis and Alternative Hypothesisp. 200
Test Statistic, Critical Values, Rejection and Nonrejection Regionsp. 201
Type I and Type II Errorsp. 202
Hypothesis Tests about a Population Mean: Large Samplesp. 207
Calculating Type II Errorsp. 209
P Valuesp. 212
Hypothesis Tests about a Population Mean: Small Samplesp. 215
Hypothesis Tests about a Population Proportion: Large Samplesp. 217
Inferences for Two Populationsp. 229
Sampling Distribution of X[subscript 1] - X[subscript 2] for Large Independent Samplesp. 229
Estimation of [mu subscript 1] - [mu subscript 2] Using Large Independent Samplesp. 230
Testing Hypothesis about [mu subscript 1] - [mu subscript 2] Using Large Independent Samplesp. 232
Sampling Distribution of X[subscript 1] - X[subscript 2] for Small Independent Samples from Normal Populations with Equal (but unknown) Standard Deviationsp. 233
Estimation of [mu subscript 1] - [mu subscript 2] Using Small Independent Samples from Normal Populations with Equal (but unknown) Standard Deviationsp. 234
Testing Hypothesis about [mu subscript 1] - [mu subscript 2] Using Small Independent Samples from Normal Populations with Equal (but Unknown) Standard Deviationsp. 235
Sampling Distribution of X[subscript 1] - X[subscript 2] for Small Independent Samples from Normal Populations with Unequal (and Unknown) Standard Deviationsp. 241
Estimation of [mu subscript 1] - [mu subscript 2] Using Small Independent Samples from Normal Populations with Unequal (and Unknown) Standard Deviationsp. 242
Testing Hypothesis about [mu subscript 1] - [mu subscript 2] Using Small Independent Samples from Normal Populations with Unequal (and Unknown) Standard Deviationsp. 244
Sampling Distribution of d for Nonnally Distributed Differences Computed for Dependent Samplesp. 246
Estimation of [mu subscript d] Using Normally Distributed Differences Computed from Dependent Samplesp. 247
Testing Hypothesis about [mu subscript d] Using Normally Distributed Differences Computed from Dependent Samplesp. 249
Sampling Distribution of P[subscript 1] = P[subscript 2] for Large Independent Samplesp. 251
Estimation of P[subscript 1] - P[subscript 2] Using Large Independent Samplesp. 252
Testing Hypothesis about P[subscript 1] - P[subscript 2] Using Large Independent Samplesp. 253
Chi-Square Proceduresp. 272
Chi-square Distributionp. 272
Chi-square Tablesp. 273
Goodness-of-Fit Testp. 274
Observed and Expected Frequenciesp. 274
Sampling Distribution of the Goodness-of-Fit Test Statisticp. 275
Chi-square Independence Testp. 278
Sampling Distribution of the Test Statistic for the Chi-square Independence Testp. 279
Sampling Distribution of the Sample Variancep. 282
Inferences Concerning the Population Variancep. 284
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)p. 299
F Distributionp. 299
F Tablep. 300
Logic Behind a One-Way ANOVAp. 302
Sum of Squares, Mean Squares, and Degrees of Freedom for a One-Way ANOVAp. 304
Sampling Distribution for the One-Way ANOVA Test Statisticp. 307
Building One-Way ANOVA Tables and Testing the Equality of Meansp. 307
Logic Behind a Two-Way ANOVAp. 311
Sum of Squares, Mean Squares, and Degrees of Freedom for a Two-Way ANOVAp. 314
Building Two-Way ANOVA Tablesp. 315
Sampling Distributions for the Two-Way ANOVAp. 316
Testing Hypothesis Concerning Main Effects and Interactionp. 316
Regression and Correlationp. 339
Straight Linesp. 339
Linear Regression Modelp. 340
Least-Squares Linep. 342
Error Sum of Squaresp. 345
Standard Deviation of Errorsp. 346
Total Sum of Squaresp. 347
Regression Sum of Squaresp. 347
Coefficient of Determinationp. 348
Mean, Standard Deviation, and Sampling Distribution of the Slope of the Estimated Regression Equationp. 349
Inferences Concerning the Slope of the Population Regression Linep. 349
Estimation and Prediction in Linear Regressionp. 350
Linear Correlation Coefficientp. 350
Inference Concerning the Population Correlation Coefficientp. 354
Nonparametric Statisticsp. 368
Nonparametric Methodsp. 368
Sign Testp. 369
Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks Test for Two Dependent Samplesp. 371
Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test for Two Independent Samplesp. 373
Kruskal-Wallis Testp. 376
Rank Correlationp. 379
Runs Test for Randomnessp. 380
Binomial Probabilitiesp. 397
Areas under the Standard Normal Curve from 0 to Zp. 403
Area in the Right Tail under the t Distribution Curvep. 405
Area in the Right Tail under the Chi-square Distribution Curvep. 407
Area in the Right Tail under the F Distribution Curvep. 409
Indexp. 411
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.
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