Water Distribution System Handbook

ISBN-10: 0071342133
ISBN-13: 9780071342131
Edition: 2000
Authors: Larry W. Mays
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Description: A standard-setting resource on water distribution systems prepared by major contributors in the field, whose affiliations include the American Water Works Association (AWWA) and The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) * Extensive coverage of  More...

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Book details

List price: $160.00
Copyright year: 2000
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing
Publication date: 9/30/1999
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 912
Size: 6.50" wide x 9.50" long x 1.75" tall
Weight: 2.486
Language: English

A standard-setting resource on water distribution systems prepared by major contributors in the field, whose affiliations include the American Water Works Association (AWWA) and The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) * Extensive coverage of design, analysis, operation, maintenance, and rehabilitation * A must for water distribution engineers, managers, operators, and analysts

Larry W. Mays (Scottsdale, AZ) is Professor of Civil and Engineering at The Arizona State University and former chairman of the department. He has published extensively on water resources literature, including over 60 refered journal publications, 65 papers in proceedings of national and international conferences, 30 reports, and two chapters in The Handbook of Civil Engineers Practice. His books include: co-author of Applied Hydrology by V.T. Chow, D.R. Maidment, and L. Mays, published by McGraw-Hill in 1988; editor of Reliability Analysis of Water Distribution Systems published by ASCE in 1989; co-author of Hydrosystems Engineering and Management with Y.K. Tung and published by McGraw-Hill in 1992; co-editor of Computer Modeling of Free-Surface and Pressurized Flow published by Kluwer Publishers in 1994; author of Optical Control of Hydrosystems published by Marcel-Dekker in 1996; and editor-in-chief of Water Resources Handbook published by McGraw-Hill in 1996; Water Distribution Systems Handbook, and Hydraulic Design Handbook also published by McGraw-Hill.

Contributors
Preface
Acknowledgments
Introduction
Background
Historical Aspects of Water Distribution
Ancient Urban Water Supplies
Status of Water Distribution Systems in the 19th Century
Perspectives on Water Distribution Mains in the United States
Early Pipe Flow Computational Methods
Modern Water Distribution Systems
The Overall Systems
System Components
System Operation
The Future
References
Hydraulics of Pressurized Flow
Introduction
Importance of Pipeline Systems
Numerical Models: Basis For Pipeline Analysis
Modeling Approach
Properties of Matter (What?)
Laws of Conservation (How?)
Conservation of Mass
Newton's Second Law
System Capacity: Problems in Time and Space
Steady Flow
Turbulent Flow
Headloss Caused by Friction
Comparison of Loss Relations
Local Losses
Tractive Force
Conveyance System Calculations: Steady Uniform Flow
Pumps: Adding Energy to the Flow
Sample Application Including Pumps
Neworks--Linking Demand and Supply
Quasi-Steady Flow: System Operation
Unsteady Flow: Introduction of Fluid Transients
Importance of Waterhammer
Cause of Transients
Physical Nature of Transient Flow
Equation of State-Wavespeed Relations
Increment of Head-Change Relation
Transient Conditions in Valves
Conclusion
References
System Design: an Overview
Introduction
Overview
Definitions
Distribution System Planning
Water Demands
Planning and Design Criteria
Peaking Coefficients
Computer Models and System Modeling
Pipeline Preliminary Design
Alignment
Subsurface Conflicts
Rights-of-Way
Piping Materials
Ductile Iron Pipe (DIP)
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Pipe
Steel Pipe
Reinforced Concrete Pressure Pipe (RCPP)
High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Pipe
Asbestos-Cement Pipe (ACP)
Pipe Material Selection
Pipeline Design
Internal Pressures
Loads on Buried Pipe
Thrust Restraint
Distribution and Transmission System Valves
Isolation Valves
Control Valves
Blow-offs
Air Release and Vacuum-Relief Valves
References
Hydraulics of Water Distribution Systems
Introduction
Configuration and Components of Water Distribution Systems
Conservation Equations for Pipe Systems
Network Components
Steady-State Hydraulic Analysis
Series and Parallel Pipe Systems
Branching Pipe Systems
Pipe Networks
Unsteady Flow in Pipe Network Analysis
Governing Equations
Solution Methods
Computer Modeling of Water Distribution Systems
Applications of Models
Model Calibration
References
Pump System Hydraulic Design
Pump Types and Definitions
Pump Standards
Pump Definitions and Terminology
Types of Centrifugal Pumps
Pump Hydraulics
Pump Performance Curves
Pipeline Hydraulics and System Curves
Hydraulics of Valves
Determination of Pump Operating Points-Single Pump
Pumps Operating in Parallel
Variable-Speed Pumps
Concept of Specific Speed
Introduction: Discharge-Specific Speed
Suction-Specific Speed
Net Positive Suction Head
Net Positive Suction Head Available
Net Positive Suction Head Required by a Pump
NPSH Margin or Safety Factor Considerations
Cavitation
Corrected Pump Curves
Hydraulic Considerations in Pump Selection
Flow Range of Centrifugal Pumps
Causes and Effects of Centrifugal Pumps Operating Outside Allowable Flow Ranges
Summary of Pump Selection
Application of Pump Hydraulic Analysis to Design of Pumping Station Components
Pump Hydraulic Selections and Specifications
Piping
Implications of Hydraulic Transients in Pumping Station Design
Effect of Surge on Valve Selection
Effect of Surge on Pipe Material Selection
References
Appendix
Hydraulic Transient Design for Pipeline Systems
Introduction to Waterhammer and Surging
Fundamentals of Waterhammer and Surge
Definitions
Acoustic Velocity
Joukowsky (Waterhammer) Equation
Hydraulic Characteristics of Valves
Descriptions of Various Types of Valves
Definition of Geometric Characteristics of Valves
Definition of Hydraulic Performance of Valves
Typical Geometric and Hydraulic Valve Characteristics
Valve Operation
Hydraulic Characteristics of Pumps
Definition of Pump Characteristics
Homologous (Affinity) Laws
Abnormal Pump (Four-Quadrant) Characteristics
Representation of Pump Data for Numerical Analysis
Critical Data Required for Hydraulic Analysis of Systems with Pumps
Surge Protection and Surge Control Devices
Critical Parameters for Transients
Critique of Surge Protection
Surge Protection Control and Devices
Design Considerations
Negative Pressures and Water Column Separation in Networks
Time Constants for Hydraulic Systems
Case Studies
Case Study with One-way and Simple Surge Tanks
Case Study with Air chamber
Case Study with Air-vaccum Breaker
References
Optimal Design of Water Distribution Systems
Overview
Problem Definition
Mathematical Formulation
Optimization Methods
Branched Systems
Looped Pipe Systems via Linearization
General System Design via Nonlinear Programming
Stochastic Search Techniques
Applications
Summary
References
Water-Quality Aspects of Construction and Operations
Introduction
Disinfection of New Water Mains
Need for Disinfection
Disinfection Chemicals
Disinfection Procedures
Testing New Mains
Main Repairs
Disposal of Highly Chlorinated Water
Disinfection of Storage Tanks
Disinfection Procedures for Filling Tanks
Underwater Inspection
Cross-Connection Control
Definitions
Cross-Connection Control Programs
Backflow Prevention
Application of Backflow Preventers
Flushing of Distribution Systems
Background
Flushing Procedures
Directional Flushing
Alternating of Disinfectants
References
Water Quality
Introduction
Overview
Definitions
Water-Quality Processes
Loss of Disinfectant Residual
Growth of Disinfection By-products
Internal Corrosion
Biofilms
Water-Quality Monitoring
Routine Monitoring
Synoptic Monitoring
Water-Quality Modeling
History
Governing Equations
Solution Methods
Data Requirements
Model Calibration
References
Hydraulic Design of Water Distribution Storage Tanks
Introduction
Basic Concepts
Equalization
Pressure Maintenance
Fire Storage
Emergency Storage
Energy Consumption
Water Quality
Hydraulic Transient Control
Aesthetics
Design Issues
Floating Versus Pumped Storage
Ground Versus Elevated Tank
Effective Versus Total Storage
Private Versus Utility Owned Tanks
Pressurized Tanks
Location
Clearwell Storage
Tanks Downstream of the Demand Center
Multiple Tanks in the Pressure Zone
Multiple Pressure-Zone Systems
Other Siting Considerations
Tank Levels
Setting Tank Overflow Levels
Identifying Tank Service Areas
Identifying Pressure Zones
Tank Volume
Trade-offs in Tank Volume Design
Standards-Driven Sizing
Functional Design
Staging Requirements
Useful Dead Storage
Other Design Considerations
Altitude Valves
Cathodic Protection and Coatings
Overflows and Vents
References
Quality of Water in Storage
Introduction
Overview
Definitions
Water Quality Problems
Chemical Problems
Microbiological Problems
Physical Problems
Mixing and Aging in Storage Facilities
Ideal Flow Regimes
Jet Mixing
Mixing Times
Stratification
Aging
Monitoring and Sampling
Routine Monitoring
Sampling Methods and Equipment
Monitoring Frequency and Location of Samples
Special Studies
Modeling
Scale Models
Computational Fluid Dynamics
Systems Models
Design and Operational Issues
Water-Quality Design Objectives
Modes of Operation: Simultaneous Inflow-Outflow Versus Fill and Draw
Flow Regimes: Complete Mix Versus Plug Flow
Stratification in Reservoirs
Inspection and Maintenance Issues
Inspections
Maintenance
References
Computer Models/Epanet
Introduction
Need for Computer Models
Uses of Computer Models
History of Computer Models
Use of a Computer Model
Network Representation
Compilation of Data
Estimation of Demand
Operating Characteristics
Reaction-Rate Information
Model Calibration
Computer Model Internals
Input Processing
Topological Processing
Hydraulic Solution Algorithms
Linear-Equation Solver
Extended-Period Solver
Water-Quality Algorithms
Output Processing
Epanet Program
Background
Program Features
User Interface
Solver Module
Programmer's Toolkit
Conclusion
References
Water Quality Modeling-Case Studies
Introduction
Design of Distribution Systems in The United States
Water Quality in Networks
Hydraulic and Water-Quality Models
Steady-State-Water Quality Models
Dynamic Water-Quality Models
Early Applications of Water-Quality Modeling
North Penn Study
South Central Connecticut Regional Water Authority
Case Study of Cabool, Missouri
Evolution of Water Quality Modeling
Modeling Propagation of Contaminants
Case Study of the North Marin Water District
Complement to the North Marin study
Waterborne Outbreak in Gideon, Missouri
Current Trends in Water-Quality Modeling
Study in Cholet, France
Case Study in Southington, Connecticut
Mixing in Storage Tanks
Summary and Conclusions
References
Calibration of Hydraulic Network Models
Introduction
Network Characterization
Network Data Requirements
Model Parameters
Identify the Intended use of the Model
Determine Estimates of the Model Parameters
Pipe Roughness Values
Distribution of Nodal Demands
Collect Calibration Data
Fire-Flow Tests
Telemetric Data
Water-Quality Data
Evaluate the Results of the Model
Perform A Macro-Level Calibration of the Model
Perform A Sensitivity Analysis
Perform A Macro-Level Calibration of the Model
Analytical Approaches
Simulation Approaches
Optimization Approaches
Future Trends
Summary And Conclusion
References
Operation of Water Distribution Systems
Introduction
How Systems Are Operated
Typical Operating Indexes
Operating Criteria
Water Quality and Operations
Emergency Operations
Monitoring of System Performance With Scada Systems
Anatomy of a Scada System
Data Archiving
Control of Water Distribution System
Control Strategies
Centralized Versus Local Control
Linking of Scada Systems with Analysis and Control Models
Data Requirements of Analysis and Control Models
Establishment of the Link
Use of Central Databases in System Control
What the Future Holds
References
Optimization Models for Operations
Introduction
Formulations for Minimizing Energy Cost Minimization
Energy Management
Management Strategies
Management Models
Optimization Models
Summary and Conclusions
Formulations to Satisfy Water Quality
Solution Methods and Applications For Water-Quality Purposes
Mathematical Programming Approach
Simulated Annealing Approach
Development of Cost Function
Sample Application
Advantages and Disadvantages of the Two Methods
Optimal Scheduling of Booster Disinfection
Background 1: Linear Superposition
Background 2: Dynamic Network Water-Quality Models in a Planning Context
Optimal Scheduling of Booster-Station Dosages as Linear Pogramming Problem
Optimal Location and Scheduling of Booster-Station Dosage as a Mixed-Integer Linear Programming Problem
Optimal Location of Booster Stations as a Maximum Set-Covering Problem
Solution of the Optimization Models
Available Software
Summary
References
Maintenance and Rehabilitation/Replacement
Introduction
Maintenance and Rehabilitation Problems
Preview of the Chapter
Unaccounted-For Water
Indicators for Unaccounted-for Water
Understanding the Causes of Unaccounted-for Water
Components of Unaccounted-for Water
Summary
Pipe Breaks
Corrosion
External Loads
Poor Tapping
Pressure-Related Breaks
Repair Versus Replacement
Hydraulic Carrying Capacity
Diagnosis of Pressure Problems
Correction of Pressure Problems
Pipe Rehabilitation Technology
Evaluation of Pipe Rehabilitation
Maintenance Information Systems
System Mapping
System Database
Geographic Information Systems
Maintenance Management Systems
SCADA Systems
References
Reliability Analysis For Design
Failure Modes For Water Distribution Systems
Need and Justification
Definitions of Distribution System Repairs
Failure Modes
Reliability: Indexes and Approaches
Practical Aspects of Providing Reliability
Improving the Reliability of Water Distribution Systems
Analyzing the Effect of Valving on System Reliability
Component Reliability Analysis
Failure Density, Failure Rate, and Mean Time To Failure
Availability and Unavailability
Review of Models Fore Reliability of Water Distribution Systems
Reliability of a System Failure
Failure Modes
Approaches to the Assessment of Reliability
Models and Techniques for Assessing Network Reliability
Overview of Reliability Measures
Observations
Measure of Link Importance
References

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