Preface | |

Introduction to Electronics | p. 1 |

Theory | p. 5 |

Current | p. 5 |

Voltage | p. 7 |

Resistance | p. 8 |

DC Power Sources | p. 9 |

Two Simple Battery Sources | p. 10 |

Electric Circuits | p. 10 |

Ohm's Law | p. 11 |

Circuit Reduction | p. 11 |

Kirchhoff's Laws | p. 14 |

Thevenin's Theorem | p. 17 |

Sinusoidal Power Sources | p. 20 |

Root Mean Square (rms) Voltages | p. 20 |

Capacitors | p. 21 |

Reactance of a Capacitor | p. 23 |

Inductors | p. 24 |

Reactance of an Inductor | p. 26 |

Fundamental Potentials and Circuits | p. 26 |

DC Sources and RC/RL/RLC Circuits | p. 28 |

Complex Numbers | p. 30 |

Circuits with Sinusoidal Sources | p. 33 |

Analyzing Sinusoidal Circuits with Complex Impedances | p. 34 |

Impedances in Series and the Voltage Divider | p. 38 |

Impedances in Parallel and the Current Divider | p. 39 |

Applying Kirchhoff's Laws in AC Form | p. 39 |

Thevenin's Theorem in AC Form | p. 43 |

Power in AC Circuits | p. 44 |

Decibels | p. 45 |

Resonance in LC Circuits | p. 46 |

Resonance in RLC Circuits | p. 47 |

Filters | p. 48 |

Circuits with Periodic Nonsinusoidal Sources | p. 53 |

Circuits with Nonperiodic Sources | p. 55 |

Nonlinear Circuits and Analyzing Circuits by Intuition | p. 55 |

Basic Electronic Circuit Components | p. 59 |

Wires, Cables, and Connectors | p. 59 |

Wires | p. 59 |

Cables | p. 61 |

Connectors | p. 63 |

Wiring and Connector Symbols | p. 66 |

High-Frequency Effects within Wires and Cables | p. 66 |

Batteries | p. 76 |

How a Cell Works | p. 77 |

Primary Batteries | p. 79 |

Comparing Primary Batteries | p. 80 |

Secondary Batteries | p. 81 |

Battery Capacity | p. 83 |

Note on Internal Voltage Drop of a Battery | p. 83 |

Switches | p. 84 |

How a Switch Works | p. 84 |

Describing a Switch | p. 85 |

Kinds of Switches | p. 86 |

Simple Switch Applications | p. 88 |

Relays | p. 89 |

Specific Kinds of Relays | p. 91 |

A Few Notes about Relays | p. 92 |

Some Simple Relay Circuits | p. 93 |

Resistors | p. 93 |

How a Resistor Works | p. 94 |

Basic Resistor Operation | p. 95 |

Types of Fixed Resistors | p. 96 |

Understanding Resistor Labels | p. 97 |

Power Ratings for Resistors | p. 98 |

Variable Resistors | p. 98 |

Capacitors | p. 99 |

How a Capacitor Works | p. 100 |

A Note about I = CdV/dt | p. 101 |

Water Analogy of a Capacitor | p. 101 |

Basic Capacitor Functions | p. 102 |

Kinds of Capacitors | p. 103 |

Variable Capacitors | p. 105 |

Reading Capacitor Labels | p. 105 |

Important Things to Know about Capacitors | p. 105 |

Applications | p. 106 |

Inductors | p. 108 |

How an Inductor Works | p. 108 |

Basic Inductor Operation | p. 110 |

Kinds of Coils | p. 111 |

Transformers | p. 112 |

Basic Operation | p. 115 |

Special Kinds of Transformers | p. 116 |

Applications | p. 117 |

Real Kinds of Transformers | p. 118 |

Fuses and Circuit Breakers | p. 119 |

Types of Fuses and Circuit Breakers | p. 120 |

Semiconductors | p. 123 |

Semiconductor Technology | p. 123 |

What Is a Semiconductor? | p. 123 |

Applications of Silicon | p. 128 |

Diodes | p. 129 |

How a pn-Junction Diode Works | p. 129 |

Diode Water Analogy | p. 131 |

Basic Applications | p. 131 |

Important Things to Know about Diodes | p. 135 |

Zener Diodes | p. 136 |

Zener Diode Water Analogy | p. 136 |

Basic Applications for Zener Diodes | p. 136 |

Transistors | p. 138 |

Introduction to Transistors | p. 138 |

Bipolar Transistors | p. 140 |

Junction Field-Effect Transistors | p. 158 |

Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors | p. 168 |

Unijunction Transistors | p. 177 |

Thyristors | p. 181 |

Introduction | p. 181 |

Silicon-Controlled Rectifiers | p. 182 |

Silicon-Controlled Switches | p. 185 |

Triacs | p. 186 |

Four-Layer Diodes and Diacs | p. 189 |

Optoelectronics | p. 191 |

A Little Lecture on Photons | p. 191 |

Lamps | p. 193 |

Light-Emitting Diodes | p. 196 |

How an LED Works | p. 196 |

Kinds of LEDs | p. 197 |

Technical Stuff about LEDs | p. 198 |

Basic LED Operations | p. 200 |

Photoresistors | p. 201 |

How a Photoresistor Works | p. 202 |

Technical Stuff | p. 202 |

Applications | p. 202 |

Photodiodes | p. 203 |

How a Photodiode Works | p. 204 |

Basic Operations | p. 204 |

Kinds of Photodiodes | p. 205 |

Solar Cells | p. 205 |

Basic Operations | p. 206 |

Phototransistors | p. 206 |

How a Phototransistor Works | p. 207 |

Basic Configurations | p. 208 |

Kinds of Phototransistors | p. 208 |

Technical Stuff | p. 208 |

Applications | p. 209 |

Photothyristors | p. 210 |

How LASCRs Work | p. 210 |

Basic Operation | p. 211 |

Optoisolators | p. 211 |

Integrated Optoisolators | p. 212 |

Applications | p. 212 |

Integrated Circuits | p. 213 |

IC Packages | p. 214 |

Some Basic ICs to Get You Started | p. 216 |

Operational Amplifiers | p. 219 |

Operational Amplifier Water Analogy | p. 220 |

How Op Amps Work (The "Cop-Out" Explanation) | p. 221 |

Theory | p. 222 |

Negative Feedback | p. 223 |

Positive Feedback | p. 228 |

Real Kinds of Op Amps | p. 229 |

Op Amp Specifications | p. 231 |

Powering Op Amps | p. 233 |

Some Practical Notes | p. 234 |

Voltage and Current Offset Compensation | p. 235 |

Frequency Compensation | p. 236 |

Comparators | p. 236 |

Comparators with Hysteresis | p. 238 |

Inverting Comparator with Hysteresis | p. 238 |

Noninverting Comparator with Hysteresis | p. 239 |

Using Single-Supply Comparators | p. 240 |

Window Comparator | p. 240 |

Voltage-Level Indicator | p. 241 |

Applications | p. 241 |

Filters | p. 247 |

Things to Know before You Start Designing Filters | p. 248 |

Basic Filters | p. 249 |

Passive Low-Pass Filter Design | p. 250 |

A Note on Filter Types | p. 254 |

Passive High-Pass Filter Design | p. 254 |

Passive Bandpass Filter Design | p. 256 |

Passive Notch Filter Design | p. 258 |

Active Filter Design | p. 259 |

Active Low-Pass Filter Example | p. 260 |

Active High-Pass Filter Example | p. 261 |

Active Bandpass Filters | p. 262 |

Active Notch Filters | p. 264 |

Integrated Filter Circuits | p. 265 |

Oscillators and Timers | p. 267 |

RC Relaxation Oscillators | p. 268 |

The 555 Timer IC | p. 270 |

How a 555 Works (Astable Operation) | p. 271 |

Basic Astable Operation | p. 272 |

How a 555 Works (Monostable Operation) | p. 273 |

Basic Monostable Operation | p. 274 |

Some Important Notes about 555 Timers | p. 274 |

Simple 555 Applications | p. 275 |

Voltage-Controlled Oscillators (VCOs) | p. 276 |

Wien-Bridge and Twin-T Oscillators | p. 277 |

LC Oscillators (Sinusoidal Oscillators) | p. 277 |

Crystal Oscillators | p. 280 |

Voltage Regulators and Power Supplies | p. 283 |

Voltage-Regulator ICs | p. 285 |

Fixed Regulator ICs | p. 285 |

Adjustable Regulator ICs | p. 285 |

Regulator Specifications | p. 286 |

A Quick Look at a Few Regulator Applications | p. 286 |

The Transformer | p. 286 |

Rectifier Packages | p. 286 |

A Few Simple Power Supplies | p. 287 |

Technical Points about Ripple Reduction | p. 289 |

Loose Ends | p. 291 |

Switching Regulator Supplies (Switchers) | p. 292 |

Kinds of Commercial Power Supply Packages | p. 296 |

Power Supply Construction | p. 297 |

Audio Electronics | p. 299 |

A Little Lecture on Sound | p. 299 |

Microphones | p. 301 |

Microphone Specifications | p. 302 |

Audio Amplifiers | p. 303 |

Preamplifiers | p. 304 |

Mixer Circuits | p. 305 |

A Note on Impedance Matching | p. 305 |

Speakers | p. 306 |

Crossover Networks | p. 307 |

Simple ICs Used to Drive Speakers | p. 309 |

Audible-Signal Devices | p. 310 |

Miscellaneous Audio Circuits | p. 310 |

Digital Electronics | p. 313 |

The Basics of Digital Electronics | p. 313 |

Digital Logic States | p. 313 |

Number Codes Used in Digital Electronics | p. 314 |

Clock Timing and Parallel versus Serial Transmission | p. 320 |

Logic Gates | p. 321 |

Multiple-Input Logic Gates | p. 322 |

Digital Logic Gate ICs | p. 322 |

Applications for a Single Logic Gate | p. 323 |

Combinational Logic | p. 325 |

Keeping Circuits Simple (Karnaugh Maps) | p. 332 |

Combinational Devices | p. 334 |

Multiplexers (Data Selectors) and Bilateral Switches | p. 334 |

Demultiplexers (Data Distributors) and Decoders | p. 336 |

Encoders and Code Converters | p. 339 |

Binary Adders | p. 342 |

Binary Adder/Subtractor | p. 344 |

Arithmetic/Logic Units (ALUs) | p. 344 |

Comparators and Magnitude Comparator ICs | p. 345 |

Parity Generator/Checker | p. 346 |

A Note on Obsolescence and the Trend toward Microcontroller Control | p. 347 |

Logic Families | p. 348 |

TTL Family of ICs | p. 349 |

CMOS Family of ICs | p. 351 |

Input/Output Voltages and Noise Margins | p. 351 |

Current Ratings, Fanout, and Propagation Delays | p. 352 |

A Detailed Look at the Various TTL and CMOS Subfamilies | p. 353 |

A Look at a Few Other Logic Series | p. 356 |

Logic Gates with Open-Collector Outputs | p. 357 |

Schmitt-Triggered Gates | p. 358 |

Interfacing Logic Families | p. 359 |

Powering and Testing Logic ICs and General Rules of Thumb | p. 360 |

Powering Logic ICs | p. 360 |

Power Supply Decoupling | p. 361 |

Unused Inputs | p. 361 |

Logic Probes and Logic Pulsers | p. 362 |

Sequential Logic | p. 363 |

SR Flip-Flops | p. 363 |

SR Flip-Flop (Latch) ICs | p. 368 |

D Flip-Flops | p. 369 |

A Few Simple D-Type Flip-Flop Applications | p. 371 |

Quad and Octal D Flip-Flops | p. 372 |

JK Flip-Flops | p. 373 |

Applications for JK Flip-Flops | p. 375 |

Practical Timing Considerations with Flip-Flops | p. 378 |

Digital Clock Generator and Single-Pulse Generators | p. 379 |

Automatic Power-Up Clear (Reset) Circuits | p. 382 |

More on Switch Debouncers | p. 382 |

Pullup and Pulldown Resistors | p. 383 |

Counter ICs | p. 384 |

Asynchronous Counter (Ripple Counter) ICs | p. 384 |

Synchronous Counter ICs | p. 387 |

A Note on Counters with Displays | p. 393 |

Shift Registers | p. 394 |

Serial-In/Serial-Out Shifter Registers | p. 395 |

Serial-In/Parallel-Out Shift Registers | p. 395 |

Parallel-In/Serial-Out Shift Register | p. 396 |

Ring Counter (Shift Register Sequencer) | p. 396 |

Johnson Shift Counter | p. 397 |

Shift Register ICs | p. 398 |

Simple Shift Register Applications | p. 401 |

Three-State Buffers, Latches, and Transceivers | p. 404 |

Three-State Octal Buffers | p. 404 |

Three-State Octal Latches and Flip-Flops | p. 405 |

Transceivers | p. 407 |

Additional Digital Topics | p. 407 |

DC Motors, RC Servos, and Stepper Motors | p. 409 |

DC Continuous Motors | p. 409 |

Speed Control of DC Motors | p. 410 |

Directional Control of DC Motors | p. 411 |

RC Servos | p. 412 |

Stepper Motors | p. 414 |

Kinds of Stepper Motors | p. 415 |

Driving Stepper Motors | p. 417 |

Controlling the Driver with a Translator | p. 419 |

A Final Word on Identifying Stepper Motors | p. 421 |

Hands-on Electronics | p. 423 |

Safety | p. 423 |

Some Safety Tips | p. 424 |

Damaging Components with Electrostatic Discharge | p. 425 |

Handling Precautions | p. 426 |

Constructing Circuits | p. 426 |

Drawing a Circuit Schematic | p. 426 |

A Note on Circuit Simulator Programs | p. 428 |

Making a Prototype of Your Circuit | p. 428 |

The Final Circuit | p. 429 |

A Note about Board Layout | p. 433 |

Special Pieces of Hardware Used in Circuit Construction | p. 433 |

Soldering | p. 434 |

Desoldering | p. 434 |

Enclosing the Circuit | p. 435 |

Useful Items to Keep Handy | p. 435 |

Troubleshooting the Circuits You Build | p. 436 |

Multimeters | p. 437 |

Basic Operation | p. 437 |

How Analog VOMs Work | p. 438 |

How Digital Multimeters Work | p. 439 |

A Note on Measurement Errors | p. 440 |

Oscilloscopes | p. 441 |

How Scopes Work | p. 441 |

Interior Circuity of a Scope | p. 443 |

Aiming the Beam | p. 444 |

Scope Applications | p. 445 |

What All the Little Knobs and Switches Do | p. 446 |

Measuring Things with Scopes | p. 450 |

Scope Applications | p. 455 |

Appendices | p. 459 |

Power Distribution and Home Wiring | p. 459 |

Power Distribution | p. 459 |

A Closer Look at Three-Phase Electricity | p. 460 |

Home Wiring | p. 462 |

Electricity in Other Countries | p. 463 |

Electronic Symbols | p. 465 |

Useful Facts and Formulas | p. 467 |

Greek Alphabet | p. 467 |

Powers of 10 Unit Prefixes | p. 467 |

Linear Functions (y = mx + b) | p. 467 |

Quadratic Equation (y = ax[superscript 2] + bx + c) | p. 468 |

Exponents and Logarithms | p. 468 |

Trigonometry | p. 468 |

Complex Numbers | p. 469 |

Differential Calculus | p. 469 |

Finding Components | p. 471 |

A Note on Injection Molding and Patents | p. 473 |

History of Electronics Timeline | p. 477 |

Component Data, List of Logic ICs, Foreign Semiconductor Codes | p. 483 |

Standard Resistance Values for 5% Carbon-Film Resistors | p. 483 |

Selection of Diodes | p. 483 |

Selection of Zener Diodes | p. 485 |

General Purpose Bipolar Transistors | p. 486 |

General Purpose Power Bipolar Transistors | p. 487 |

Selection of RF Transistors | p. 488 |

Selection of Small-Signal JFETs | p. 488 |

Selection of Power FETs | p. 489 |

Selection of Op Amps | p. 490 |

Common 4000 Series Logic ICs | p. 491 |

Common 7000 Series Logic ICs | p. 492 |

Semiconductor Codes | p. 494 |

Analog/Digital Interfacing | p. 497 |

Triggering Simple Logic Responses from Analog Signals | p. 497 |

Using Logic to Drive External Loads | p. 498 |

Analog Switches | p. 499 |

Analog Multiplexer/Demultiplexer | p. 500 |

Analog-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analog Conversion | p. 501 |

Analog-to-Digital Converters | p. 508 |

Displays | p. 515 |

LED Displays | p. 515 |

Alphanumeric LED Displays | p. 518 |

Liquid-Crystal Displays | p. 521 |

Memory Devices | p. 535 |

Read-Only Memories (ROMs) | p. 535 |

Simple ROM Made Using Diodes | p. 536 |

Terms Used to Describe Memory Size and Organization | p. 537 |

Simple Programmable ROM | p. 538 |

Various Kinds of ROM Devices | p. 539 |

Random-Access Memories (RAMs) | p. 545 |

Microprocessors and Microcontrollers | p. 553 |

Introduction to Microprocessors | p. 554 |

Microcontrollers | p. 561 |

Index | p. 585 |

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