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Microscale and Macroscale Techniques in the Organic Laboratory

ISBN-10: 0030343119
ISBN-13: 9780030343117
Edition: 2002 (Student Manual, Study Guide, etc.)
List price: $166.95
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Description: The well-known and tested organic chemistry laboratory techniques of the two best-selling organic chemistry lab manuals: INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC LABORATORY TECHNIQUES: A SMALL SCALE APPROACH and INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC LABORATORY TECHNIQUES: A  More...

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Book details

List price: $166.95
Copyright year: 2002
Publisher: Brooks/Cole
Publication date: 8/13/2001
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 560
Size: 8.50" wide x 10.00" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 3.080
Language: English

The well-known and tested organic chemistry laboratory techniques of the two best-selling organic chemistry lab manuals: INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC LABORATORY TECHNIQUES: A SMALL SCALE APPROACH and INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC LABORATORY TECHNIQUES: A MICROSCALE APPROACH, 3/e are now assembled in one textbook. Professors can use any experiments alongside MICROSCALE AND MACROSCALE TECHNIQUES IN THE ORGANIC LABORATORY. Experiments can be selected and assembled from the two Pavia organic chemistry lab manuals, from professors' homegrown labs, or even competing texts. The 375 page, hardcover book serves as a reference for all students of organic chemistry. With clearly written prose and accurately drawn diagrams, students can feel confident setting up and running organic labs.

Donald L. Pavia earned his BS degree in chemistry from Reed College and his PhD in organic chemistry from Yale University. In 1970, he joined the faculty at Western Washington University as Assistant Professor and now holds the rank of Professor Emeritus. He is the coauthor of two organic laboratory books that include techniques and experiments: INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC LABORATORY TECHNIQUES: A MICROSCALE APPROACH (Cengage Learning), and A SMALL SCALE APPROACH TO ORGANIC LABORATORY TECHNIQUES (Cengage Learning), as well as MICROSCALE AND MACROSCALE TECHNIQUES IN THE ORGANIC LABORATORY (Cengage Learning), which highlights techniques to be used with a faculty member's own experiments. He is a co-author, with Gary M. Lampman, George S. Kriz and James R. Vyvyan of an organic spectroscopy book, INTRODUCTION TO SPECTROSCOPY (Cengage Learning). Professor Pavia's research interests center on the synthesis and reactions of valence tautomeric and photochromic compounds, especially pyrylium-3-oxide tautomers. Autoxidations are a special interest. His other interests include the use of computers in teaching organic chemistry, both for lecture presentation and for the simulation of laboratories. He is the author of several computer programs. One such program is SQUALOR (Simulated Qualitative Organic Analysis) for which he won the 1986 EDUCOM/NCRIPTAL award. The program is designed for teaching the methods for solving organic unknowns.

Gary M. Lampman earned his BS degree in chemistry from the University of California, Los Angeles, and his PhD in organic chemistry from the University of Washington. In 1964, he joined the faculty at Western Washington University as Assistant Professor, rising to Professor in 1973. He received the Outstanding Teaching Award for the College of Arts and Sciences in 1976. He now holds the title of Professor Emeritus. Teaching has always been an important part of his life. Contact with students invigorates him. He is the coauthor of two organic laboratory books that include techniques and experiments: INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC LABORATORY TECHNIQUES: A MICROSCALE APPROACH (Cengage Learning), and A SMALL SCALE ARPPROACH TO ORGANIC LABORATORY TECHNIQUES (Cengage Learning), as well as MICROSCALE AND MACROSCALE TECHNIQUES IN THE ORGANIC LABORATORY (Cengage Learning), which highlights techniques to be used with a faculty member's own experiments. He is a co-author, with Donald L. Pavia, George S. Kriz, and James R. Vyvyan of an organic spectroscopy book, INTRODUCTION TO SPECTROSCOPY, Fourth Edition (Cengage Learning). Professor Lampman also is the author of the computer program for teaching organic nomenclature: ORGANIC NOMENCLATURE: AN INTRODUCTION TO THE IUPAC SYSTEM. His research interests center on synthetic methods involving the reaction of free radicals on unsaturated cobaloximes (vitamin B12 model compounds), synthesis of strained small ring compounds, and chemical education. He is the author of 18 papers in these areas. He is a member of the American Chemical Society (Organic and Chemical Education divisions), and the Washington College Chemistry Teachers Association.

George S. Kriz is Professor of Chemistry at Western Washington University. He earned his B.S. degree in chemistry from the University of California, and his Ph.D. from Indiana University, Bloomington, IN. In 1967 he joined the faculty at Western Washington University and recently served as department chair. He served as the General Chair of the 17th Biennial Conference on Chemical Education for 2001-2002. Professor Kriz was honored with the Peter J. Elich Excellence in Teaching Award (College of Arts and Sciences), Western Washington University, in 2000 and the Distinguised Service Award from the Division of Chemical Education, American Chemical Society (2010). He is the co-author with Donald Pavia, Gary Lampman, and Randall Engel of two organic laboratory books that include both techniques and experiments: INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC LABORATORY TECHNIQUES: A MICROSCALE APPROACH (Cengage Learning), and A SMALL SCALE APPROACH TO ORGANIC LABORATORY TECHNIQUES (Cengage Learning). Their book, MICROSCALE AND MACROSCALE TECHNIQUES IN THE ORGANIC LABORATORY (Cengage Learning), includes techniques only, and can be used with a faculty member's own experiments. He is a co-author, with Donald Pavia, Gary Lampman, and James Vyvyan, of an organic spectroscopy book, INTRODUCTION TO SPECTROSCOPY (Cengage Learning). Professor Kriz's research interests include: developing new experiments for the organic chemistry laboratory; chemical education and the teaching of chemistry courses for general-understanding audiences; and determination of the structures of natural products using spectroscopic methods.

Randall G. Engel has taught chemistry for almost 35 years. He has co-authored with Donald Pavia, Gary Lampman, and George Kriz INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC LABORATORY TECHNIQUES: A MICROSCALE APPROACH (Cengage Learning), and A SMALL SCALE INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC LABORATORY TECHNIQUES (Cengage Learning). Their book, MICROSCALE AND MACROSCALE TECHNIQUES IN THE ORGANIC LABORATORY (Cengage Learning), includes techniques only, and can be used with a faculty member's own experiments. Engel received his B.A. degree in chemistry from Cornell College and his M.S. degree in chemistry from Western Washington University. He began his teaching career at Wenatchee Valley College in 1975 and continued at Green River Community College and Edmonds Community College. Presently he teaches organic chemistry on a part-time basis at North Seattle Community College.

Preface
Introduction: Welcome to Organic Chemistry!
Laboratory Safety
Safety Guidelines
Right-to-Know Laws
Common Solvents
Carcinogenic Substances
References
Advance Preparation and Laboratory Records
The Notebook
Notebook Format
Laboratory Reports
Submission of Samples
Laboratory Glassware
Cleaning Glassware
Drying Glassware
Ground-glass Joints
Connecting Ground-glass Joints
Capping Flasks, Conical Vials, and Openings
Separating Ground-glass Joints
Etching Glassware
Attaching Rubber Tubing to Equipment
Description of Equipment
How to Find Data for Compounds: Handbooks and Catalogs
CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics
Lange's Handbook of Chemistry
The Merck Index
Aldrich Handbook of Fine Chemicals
Strategy for Finding Information: Summary
Problems
Measurement of Volume and Weight
Graduated Cylinders
Dispensing Pumps
Graduated Pipets
Pasteur Pipets
Syringes
Automatic Pipets
Measuring Volumes with Conical Vials, Beakers, and Erlenmeyer Flasks
Balances
Problems
Heating and Cooling Methods
Heating Mantles
Hot plates
Water Bath with Hot Plate/Stirrer
Oil Bath with Hot Plate/Stirrer
Aluminum Block with Hot Plate/Stirrer
Sand Bath with Hot Plate/Stirrer
Flames
Steam Baths
Cold Baths
Problems
Reaction Methods
Assembling the Apparatus
Heating under Reflux
Stirring Methods
Boiling Stones
Addition of Liquid Reagents
Drying Tubes
Reactions Conducted under an Inert Atmosphere
Capturing Noxious Gases
Collecting Gaseous Products
Evaporation of Solvents
Rotary Evaporator
Problems
Filtration
Gravity Filtration
Filter Paper
Vacuum Filtration
Filtering Media
The Aspirator
Filter-Tip Pipet
Craig Tubes
Centrifugation
Problems
Physical Constants of Solids: The Melting Point
Physical Properties
The Melting Point
Melting-Point Theory
Mixture Melting Points
Packing the Melting-Point Tube
Determining the Melting Point--The Thiele Tube
Determining the Melting Point--Electrical Instruments
Decomposition, Discoloration, Softening, Shrinkage, and Sublimation
Thermometer Calibration
Problems
Solubility
Definition of Solubility
Predicting Solubility Behavior
Organic Solvents
Problems
Crystallization: Purification of Solids
Theory
Solubility
Theory of Crystallization
Macroscale Crystallization
Macroscale Crystallization
Microscale Crystallization
Microscale Crystallization
Additional Experimental Considerations: Macroscale and Microscale
Selecting a Solvent
Testing Solvents for Crystallization
Decolorization
Inducing Crystallization
Drying Crystals
Mixed Solvents
Problems
Extractions, Separations, and Drying Agents
Theory
Extraction
Distribution Coefficient
Choosing an Extraction Method and a Solvent
Macroscale Extraction
The Separatory Funnel
Microscale Extraction
The Conical Vial--Separating the Lower Layer
The Conical Vial--Separating the Upper Layer
The Screw-Cap Centrifuge Tube
Additional Experimental Considerations: Macroscale and Microscale
How Do You Determine Which One Is the Organic Layer?
Drying Agents
Emulsions
Purification and Separation Methods
Continuous Extraction Methods
Continuous Solid-Liquid Extraction
Continuous Liquid-Liquid Extraction
Problems
Physical Constants of Liquids: The Boiling Point and Density
Boiling Points and Thermometer Corrections
The Boiling Point
Determining the Boiling Point--Microscale Methods
Determining the Boiling Point--Other Methods
Thermometer Stem Corrections
Density
Density
Problems
Simple Distillation
The Evolution of Distillation Equipment
Theory
Distillation Theory
Macroscale Distillation
Simple Distillation--Macroscale Methods
Microscale Distillation
Simple Distillation--Microscale Methods
Semimicroscale Distillation
Simple Distillation--Semimicroscale Methods
Problems
Fractional Distillation; Azeotropes
Theory
Differences between Simple and Fractional Distillation
Vapor-Liquid Composition Diagrams
Raoult's Law
Column Efficiency
Types of Fractionating Columns and Packings
Macroscale Distillation
Fractional Distillation--Macroscale Methods
Microscale Distillation
Fractional Distillation--Microscale Methods
Azeotropes
Nonideal Solutions: Azeotropes
Azeotropic Distillation: Applications
Problems
Vacuum Distillation; Manometers
Theory
The Effect of Pressure on Boiling Point
Macroscale Distillation
Vacuum Distillation--Macroscale Methods
Vacuum Distillation: Stepwise Macroscale Directions
Microscale Distillation
Vacuum Distillation--Microscale Methods
Simplified Microscale Apparatus
Vacuum Distillation: Stepwise Microscale Directions
Rotary Fraction Collectors
Bulb-to-Bulb Distillation
Semimicroscale Distillation
Vacuum Distillation--Semimicroscale Methods
Vacuum Pump Methods
The Mechanical Vacuum Pump
Manometers
The Closed-End Manometer
Connecting and Using a Manometer
Problems
Sublimation
Theory
Vapor Pressure Behavior of Solids and Liquids
Sublimation Behavior of Solids
Vacuum Sublimation
Advantages of Sublimation
Macroscale and Microscale Sublimation
Sublimation--Methods
Sublimation--Specific Directions
Problems
Steam Distillation
Theory
Differences between Distillation of Miscible and Immiscible Mixtures
Immiscible Mixtures: Calculations
Macroscale Distillation
Steam Distillation--Macroscale Methods
Microscale Distillation
Steam Distillation--Microscale Methods
Semimicroscale Distillation
Steam Distillation--Semimicroscale Methods
Problems
Column Chromatography
Adsorbents
Interactions
Principle of Column Chromatographic Separation
Parameters Affecting Separation
Packing the Column: Typical Problems
Packing the Column: Preparing the Support Base
Packing the Column: Depositing the Adsorbent--Dry Pack Methods
Packing the Column: Depositing the Adsorbent--The Slurry Method
Applying the Sample to the Column
Elution Techniques
Reservoirs
Monitoring the Column
Tailing
Recovering the Separated Compounds
Decolorization by Column Chromatography
Gel Chromatography
Flash Chromatography
References
Problems
Thin-Layer Chromatography
Principles of Thin-Layer Chromatography
Commercially Prepared TLC Plates
Preparation of Thin-Layer Slides and Plates
Sample Application: Spotting the Plates
Developing (Running) TLC Plates
Choosing a Solvent for Development
Visualization Methods
Preparative Plates
The R[subscript f] Value
Thin-Layer Chromatography Applied in Organic Chemistry
Paper Chromatography
Problems
High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)
Adsorbents and Columns
Column Dimensions
Solvents
Detectors
Presentation of Data
Reference
Problems
Gas Chromatography
The Gas Chromatograph
The Column
Principles of Separation
Factors Affecting Separation
Advantages of Gas Chromatography
Monitoring the Column (The Detector)
Retention Time
Poor Resolution and Tailing
Qualitative Analysis
Collecting the Sample
Quantitative Analysis
Treatment of Data: Chromatograms Produced by Modern Data Stations
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS)
Problems
Polarimetry
Nature of Polarized Light
The Polarimeter
The Sample Cells
Operation of the Polarimeter
Optical Purity
Problems
Refractometry
The Refractive Index
The Abbe Refractometer
Cleaning the Refractometer
Temperature Corrections
Problems
Infrared Spectroscopy
Sample Preparation and Recording the Spectrum
Introduction
Liquid Samples--NaCl Plates
Liquid Samples--AgCl Plates
Solid Samples--Dry Film
Solid Samples--KBr Pellets and Nujol Mulls
Solid Samples--Solution Spectra
Recording the Spectrum
Calibration
Infrared Spectroscopy
Uses of the Infrared Spectrum
Modes of Vibration
What to Look for in Examining Infrared Spectra
Correlation Charts and Tables
Analyzing a Spectrum (or What You Can Tell at a Glance)
Survey of the Important Functional Groups
References
Problems
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (Proton NMR)
Preparing a Sample for NMR Spectroscopy
Routine Sample Preparation Using Deuterated Chloroform
Nonroutine Sample Preparation
Reference Substances
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ([superscript 1] HNMR)
The Chemical Shift
Chemical Equivalence--Integrals
Chemical Environment and Chemical Shift
Local Diamagnetic Shielding
Anisotropy
Spin-Spin Splitting (n + 1 Rule)
The Coupling Constant
Magnetic Equivalence
Spectra at Higher Field Strength
Aromatic Compounds--Substituted Benzene Rings
Protons Attached to Atoms Other Than Carbon
Chemical Shift Reagents
References
Problems
Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Preparing a Sample for Carbon-13 NMR
Carbon-13 Chemical Shifts
Proton-Coupled [superscript 13]C Spectra--Spin-Spin Splitting of Carbon-13 Signals
Proton-Decoupled [superscript 13]C Spectra
Some Sample Spectra--Equivalent Carbons
Nuclear Overhauser Enhancement (NOE)
Compounds with Aromatic Rings
References
Problems
Mass Spectrometry
The Mass Spectrum
Molecular Formula Determination
Detecting Halogens
Fragmentation Patterns
Interpreted Mass Spectra
Rearrangement Reactions
References
Computational Chemistry
Molecular Mechanics
Molecular Mechanics
Minimization and Conformation
Limitations of Molecular Mechanics
Current Implementations
Ab initio and Semiempirical Methods
Quantum Mechanical Calculations
Ab Initio and Semiempirical Calculations
Solving the Schrodinger Equation
Basis Set Orbitals
Semiempirical Methods
Picking a Basis Set for Ab Initio Calculations
Heats of Formation
Graphical Models and Visualization
Surfaces
Mapping Properties onto a Density Surface
References
Guide to the Chemical Literature
Locating Physical Constants: Handbooks
General Synthetic Methods
Searching the Chemical Literature
Collections of Spectra
Advanced Textbooks
Specific Synthetic Methods
Advanced Laboratory Methods
Reaction Mechanisms
Organic Qualitative Analysis
Beilstein and Chemical Abstracts
Computer Online Searching
Scientific Journals
Topics of Current Interest
How to Conduct a Literature Search
Problems
Index

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