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Computer Graphics Using Open GL

ISBN-10: 0023548568
ISBN-13: 9780023548567
Edition: 2nd 2001
Authors: F. S. Hill
List price: $110.00
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Book details

List price: $110.00
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2001
Publisher: Prentice Hall PTR
Publication date: 5/3/2000
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 922
Size: 8.50" wide x 13.75" long x 1.50" tall
Weight: 4.246
Language: English

Preface
Introduction to Computer Graphics
What is Computer Graphics?
Where Computer Generated Pictures are Used
Art, Entertainment, and Publishing
Computer Graphics and Image Processing
Monitoring a Process
Displaying Simulations
Computer-aided Design
Scientific Analysis and Visualization
Elements of Pictures created in Computer Graphics
Polylines
Text
Filled Regions
Raster Images
Representation of Gray Shades and Color for Raster Graphics
Graphics Display Devices
Line Drawing Displays
Raster Displays
Indexed Color and the LUT
Other Raster Display Devices
Hard Copy Raster Devices
Graphics Input Primitives and Devices
Types of Input Graphics Primitives
Types of Physical Input Devices
Summary
Further Reading
Getting Started Drawing Figures
Getting Started Making Pictures
Device-independent Programming, and OpenGL
Windows-based Programming
Opening a Window for Drawing
Drawing Basic Graphics Primitives
Examples of Drawing Dot Constellations
Making Line Drawings
Drawing Polylines and Polygons
Line Drawing using moveto() and lineto()
Drawing Aligned Rectangles
Aspect Ratio of an Aligned Rectangle
Filling Polygons
Other Graphics Primitives in OpenGL
Simple Interaction with the Mouse and Keyboard
Mouse Interaction
Keyboard Interaction
More Drawing Tools
Introduction
World Windows and Viewports
The Mapping from the Window to the Viewport
Setting the Window and Viewport Automatically
Clipping Lines
Clipping a Line
The Cohen-Sutherland Clipping Algorithm
Developing the Canvas Class
Some useful Supporting Classes
Declaration of Class Canvas
Implementation of Class Canvas
Relative Drawing
Developing moveRel() and lineRel()
TurtleGraphics
Figures Based on Regular Polygons
The Regular Polygons
Variations on n-Gons
Drawing Circles and Arcs
Drawing arcs
Using the Parametric Form of a Curve
Parametric Forms for Curves
Drawing Curves Represented Parametrically
Superellipses
Polar Coordinate Shapes
3D Curves
Vector Tools for Graphics
Introduction
Review of Vectors
Operations with Vectors
Linear Combinations of Vectors
The Magnitude of a Vector, and Unit Vectors
The Dot Product
Properties of the Dot Product
The Angle Between two Vectors
The Sign of b-c; Perpendicularity
The 2D "Perp" Vector
Orthogonal Projections, and the Distance from a Point to a Line
Applications of Projection: Reflections
The Cross Product of Two Vectors
Geometric Interpretation of the Cross Product
Finding the Normal to a Plane
Representations of Key Geometric Objects
Coordinate Systems and Coordinate Frames
Affine Combinations of Points
Linear Interpolation of Two Points
"Tweening" for Art and Animation
Preview: Quadratic and Cubic Tweening, and Bezier Curves
Representing Lines and Planes
Finding the Intersection of Two Line Segments
Application of Line Intersections: the Circle Through Three Points
Intersections of Lines with Planes, and Clipping
Polygon Intersection Problems
Working with Convex Polygons and Polyhedra
Ray Intersections and Clipping for Convex Polygons
The Cyrus-Beck Clipping Algorithm
Clipping against Arbitrary Polygons
More Advanced Clipping
Transformations of Objects
Introduction
Introduction to Transformations
Transforming Points and Objects
The Affine Transformations
Geometric Effects of elementary 2D Affine Transformations
The Inverse of an Affine Transformation
Composing Affine Transformations
Examples of Composing 2D Transformations
Some Useful Properties of Affine Transformations
3D Affine Transformations
The Elementary 3D Transformations
Composing 3D Affine Transformations
Combining Rotations
Summary of Properties of 3D Affine Transformations
Changing Coordinate Systems
Using Affine Transformations in a Program
Saving the CT for Later Use
Drawing 3D Scenes with OpenGL
An Overview of the Viewing Process and the Graphics Pipeline
Some OpenGL tools for Modeling and Viewing
Drawing Elementary Shapes Provided by OpenGL
Reading a Scene Description from a File
Modeling Shapes with Polygonal Meshes
Introduction
Introduction to Solid Modeling with Polygonal Meshes
Defining a Polygonal Mesh
Finding the Normal Vectors
Properties of Meshes
Mesh Models for Nonsolid Objects
Working with Meshes in a Program
Polyhedra
Prisms and Antiprisms
The Platonic Solids
Other Interesting Polyhedra
Extruded Shapes
Creating Prisms
Arrays of Extruded Prisms: "Bricklaying"
Extrusions with a "Twist"
Building Segmented Extrusions: Tubes and Snakes
"Discretely" Swept Surfaces of Revolution
Mesh Approximations to Smooth Objects
Representations for Surfaces
The Normal Vector to a Surface
The Effect of an Affine Transformation
Three "Generic" Shapes: the Sphere, Cylinder, and Cone
Forming a Polygonal Mesh for a Curved Surface
Ruled Surfaces
Surfaces of Revolution
The Quadric Surfaces
The Superquadrics
Tubes Based on 3D Curves
Surfaces Based on Explicit Functions of Two Variables
Three-Dimensional Viewing
Introduction
The Camera Revisited
Setting the View Volume
Positioning and Pointing the Camera
Building a Camera in a Program
"Flying" the Camera
Perspective Projections of 3D Objects
Perspective Projection of a Point
Perspective Projection of a Line
Incorporating Perspective in the Graphics Pipeline
Producing Stereo Views
Taxonomy of Projections
One-, Two-, and Three-Point Perspective
Types of Parallel Projections
Rendering Faces for Visual Realism
Introduction
Introduction to Shading Models
Geometric Ingredients for Finding Reflected Light
Computing the Diffuse Component
Specular Reflection
The Role of Ambient Light
Combining Light Contributions
Adding Color
Shading and the Graphics Pipeline
Using Light Sources in OpenGL
Working with Material Properties in OpenGL
Shading of Scenes Specified by SDL
Flat Shading and Smooth Shading
Flat Shading
Smooth Shading
Removing Hidden Surfaces
The Depth Buffer Approach
Adding Texture to Faces
Pasting the Texture onto a Flat Surface
Rendering the Texture
What Does a Texture Modulate?
A Texture Example Using OpenGL
Wrapping Texture on Curved Surfaces
Reflection Mapping
Adding Shadows of Objects
Shadows as Texture
Creating Shadows with the Use of a Shadow Buffer
Approaches to Infinity
Introduction
Fractals and Self-Similarity
Successive Refinement of Curves
Drawing Koch Curves and Snowflakes
Fractional Dimension
String Production and Peano Curves
Producing Recursively and Drawing in a Program
Allowing Branching
Tiling the Plane
Monohedral Tilings
Dihedral Tilings
Drawing Tilings
Reptiles
Creating an Image by Means of Iterated Functions Systems
An Experimental Copier
Some Underlying theory of the Copying Process
Drawing the k-th Iterate
The Chaos Game
Finding the IFS, Fractal Image Compression
The Mandelbrot Set
Mandelbrot Sets and Iterated Functions Systems
Defining the Mandelbrot Set
Computing whether the point c is in the Mandelbrot Set
Drawing the Mandelbrot Set
Some Notes on the Mandelbrot Set
Julia Sets
The Filled-in Julia Set K[subscript c]
Drawing Filled-in Julia Sets
Some Notes on Fixed points and Basins of Attraction
The Julia Set J[subscript c]
Random Fractals
Fractalizing a Segment
Controlling the Spectral Density of the Fractal Curve
Tools for Raster Displays
Introduction
Manipulating Pixmaps
Operations of Interest for Pixmaps
Useful Data Types for Pixmaps
Scaling and Rotating Images
Combining Pixmaps
The Read-Modify-Write Cycle
The Alpha Channel and Image Blending
Logical Combinations of Pixmaps
The BitBlt operation
Do-It-Yourself Line Drawing: Bresenham's Algorithm
Bresenham's Line-Drawing Algorithm
Defining and Filling Regions of Pixels
Defining Regions
Pixel-Defined Regions
A Recursive Flood-Fill Algorithm
Filling Regions with Patterns
Using Coherence: Region Filling Based on Runs of Pixels
Manipulating Symbolically Defined Reigions
Rectangle-defined Regions
Path-defined Regions
Filling Polygon-Defined Regions
Which Pixels on an Edge Belong to a Polygon?
Improving the Algorithm's Performance
Aliasing; Antialiasing Techniques
Antialiasing Techniques
Antialiasing of Texture
Antialiasing Using OpenGL
Creating More Shades and Colors
Ordered Dither
Error Diffusion
Curve and Surface Design
Introduction
Parametric Curves as Trajectories
Smoothness of Motion
Describing Curves by Means of Polynomials
On Interactive Curve Design
Bezier Curves for Curve Design
The de Casteljau Algorithm
Properties of Bezier Curves
Finding Better Blending Functions
The Problem of Local Control
Wish List for a Set of Blending Functions
Piecewise Polynomial Curves and Splines
Building a set of Blending Functions Out of g(t)
Spline Curves and Basis Functions
The B-Spline Basis Functions
Definition of B-Spline Functions
Using Multiple Knots in the Knot Vector
Open B-Spline Curves: Standard Knot Vector
Useful Properties of B-Spline Curves for Design
Using Multiple Control Points
Rational Splines and NURBS Curves
A Glimpse at Interpolation
Interpolation Using Piecewise Cubic Polynomials
Hermite Interpolation
The Natural Cubic Spline
Computing the Slopes in Cubic Interpolation
Specifying the Tangent Vectors Interactively
Modeling Curved Surfaces
Ruled Surfaces Based on B-Splines
Surfaces of Revolution Based on B-Splines
Bezier Surface Patches
Patching Together Bezier Patches
B-Spline Patches
NURBS Surfaces
Color Theory
Introduction
Describing Colors
Dominant Wavelength
Color Matching
The International Commission on Illumination Standard
Constructing the CIE Chart
Using the CIE Chromaticity Diagram
Color Gamuts
Color Spaces
The RGB and CMY Color Spaces
Additive and Subtractive Color Systems
The HLS Color Model
Color Quantization
Uniform Quantization
The Popularity Algorithm
The Median-cut Algorithm
Octree Quantization
Hidden Surface Removal
Introduction
Object Precision versus Image Precision Approaches
Description of the Polygon Mesh Data
The Depth Buffer Algorithm Revisited
List Priority HSR Methods
The Heedless Painter's Algorithm
HSR Using Binary Space Partition Trees
The Depth Sort Algorithm
A Scan-Line HSR Method
Area Subdivision Approaches
Quadrant Subdivision
Other Definitions of a Simple Region
On Hidden Line Removal Methods
The Geometric Testing in edgeTest()
HSR Methods for Curved Surfaces
Ray Tracing
Introduction
Setting Up the Geometry of Ray Tracing
Overview of the Ray-Tracing Process
Intersection of a Ray with an Object
Intersection of a Ray with a Generic Plane
Intersection with a Generic Sphere
Intersection of the Ray with Transformed Objects
Organizing a Ray Tracer Application
A Routine to Compute Ray-Sphere Intersections
A Complete Ray Tracer for Emissive-Sphere Scenes
Intersecting Rays with Other Primitives
Intersecting with a Square
Intersecting with a Tapered Cylinder
Intersecting with a Cube (or any Convex Polyhedron)
Adding More Primitives
Drawing Shaded Pictures of Scenes
Finding the Normal at the Hit Spot
Coloring Objects According to their Surface Materials
Physically-based Shading Models: Cook-Torrance Shading
Adding Surface Texture
Solid Texture
Pasting Images onto Surfaces
Antialiasing Ray Tracings
Using Extents
Box and Sphere Extents
Using Projection Extents
Adding Shadows for Greater Realism
Reflections and Transparency
The Refraction of Light
Dealing with Refraction in shade()
Compound Objects: Boolean Operations on Objects
Ray Tracing CSG Objects
Data Structure for Boolean Objects
Intersecting Rays with Boolean Objects
Building and Using Extents for CSG Objects
Appendixes
Graphics Tools - Obtaining OpenGL
Obtaining and Installing OpenGL
Some Mathematics for Computer Graphics
Some Key Definitions for Matrices and their Operations
Some Properties of Vectors and their Operations
The Arithmetic of Complex Numbers
Spherical Coordinates and Direction Cosines
Some Useful Classes and Utility Routines
Classes for 2D Graphis
RGBPixmap Class
The Scene and Supporting Classes
Noise Class
Some Classes that are Useful for Ray Tracing
An Introduction to PostScript
About the PostScript Language
Graphics Operators in PostScript
Drawing Text in PostScript
Defining New Variables and Procedures
Decisions and Iterations
Printing Values
Drawing Gray-scale Image
An Introduction to SDL
Syntax of SDL
Macros in SDL
Extending SDL
References
Index

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