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About the Author | |

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Preface to the Fifth Edition | |

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Preface to the First Edition | |

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The First Aeronautical Engineers | |

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Introduction | |

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Very Early Developments | |

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Sir George Cayley (1773-1857)--The True Inventor of the Airplane | |

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The Interregnum--From 1853 to 1891 | |

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Otto Lilienthal (1848-1896)--The Glider Man | |

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Percy Pilcher (1867-1899)--Extending the Glider Tradition | |

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Aeronautics Comes to America | |

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Wilbur (1867-1912) and Orville (1871-1948) Wright--Inventors of the First Practical Airplane | |

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The Aeronautical Triangle--Langley, the Wrights, and Glenn Curtiss | |

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The Problem of Propulsion | |

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Faster and Higher | |

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Summary | |

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Bibliography | |

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Fundamental Thoughts | |

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Fundamental Physical Quantities of a Flowing Gas | |

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Pressure | |

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Density | |

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Temperature | |

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Flow Velocity and Streamlines | |

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The Source of All Aerodynamic Forces | |

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Equation of State for a Perfect Gas | |

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Discussion of Units | |

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Specific Volume | |

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Anatomy of the Airplane | |

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Anatomy of a Space Vehicle | |

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Historical Note: The NACA and NASA | |

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Summary | |

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Bibliography | |

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Problems | |

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The Standard Atmosphere | |

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Definition of Altitude | |

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Hydrostatic Equation | |

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Relation Between Geopotential and Geometric Altitudes | |

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Definition of the Standard Atmosphere | |

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Pressure, Temperature, and Density Altitudes | |

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Historical Note: The Standard Atmosphere | |

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Summary | |

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Bibliography | |

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Problems | |

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Basic Aerodynamics | |

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Continuity Equation | |

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Incompressible and Compressible Flow | |

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Momentum Equation | |

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A Comment | |

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Elementary Thermodynamics | |

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Isentropic Flow | |

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Energy Equation | |

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Summary of Equations | |

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Speed of Sound | |

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Low-Speed Subsonic Wind Tunnels | |

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Measurement of Airspeed | |

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Incompressible Flow | |

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Subsonic Compressible Flow | |

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Supersonic Flow | |

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Summary | |

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Some Additional Considerations | |

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More on Compressible Flow | |

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More on Equivalent Airspeed | |

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Supersonic Wind Tunnels and Rocket Engines | |

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Discussion of Compressibility | |

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Introduction to Viscous Flow | |

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Results for a Laminar Boundary Layer | |

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Results for a Turbulent Boundary Layer | |

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Compressibility Effects on Skin Friction | |

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Transition | |

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Flow Separation | |

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Summary of Viscous Effects on Drag | |

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Historical Note: Bernoulli and Euler | |

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Historical Note: The Pitot Tube | |

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Historical Note: The First Wind Tunnels | |

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Historical Note: Osborne Reynolds and His Number | |

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Historical Note: Prandtl and the Development of the Boundary Layer Concept | |

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Summary | |

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Bibliography | |

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Problems | |

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Airfoils, Wings, and Other Aerodynamic Shapes | |

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Introduction | |

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Airfoil Nomenclature | |

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Lift, Drag, and Moment Coefficients | |

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Airfoil Data | |

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Infinite Versus Finite Wings | |

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Pressure Coefficient | |

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Obtaining Lift Coefficient from C[subscript p] | |

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Compressibility Correction for Lift Coefficient | |

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Critical Mach Number and Critical Pressure Coefficient | |

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Drag-Divergence Mach Number | |

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Wave Drag (at Supersonic Speeds) | |

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Summary of Airfoil Drag | |

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Finite Wings | |

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Calculation of Induced Drag | |

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Change in the Lift Slope | |

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Swept Wings | |

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Flaps--A Mechanism for High Lift | |

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Aerodynamics of Cylinders and Spheres | |

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How Lift Is Produced--Some Alternate Explanations | |

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Historical Note: Airfoils and Wings | |

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The Wright Brothers | |

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British and U.S. Airfoils (1910 to 1920) | |

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1920 to 1930 | |

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Early NACA Four-Digit Airfoils | |

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Later NACA Airfoils | |

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Modern Airfoil Work | |

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Finite Wings | |

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Historical Note: Ernst Mach and His Number | |

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Historical Note: The First Manned Supersonic Flight | |

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Historical Note: The X-15--First Manned Hypersonic Airplane and Stepping-Stone to the Space Shuttle | |

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Summary | |

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Bibliography | |

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Problems | |

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Elements of Airplane Performance | |

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Introduction: The Drag Polar | |

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Equations of Motion | |

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Thrust Required for Level, Unaccelerated Flight | |

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Thrust Available and Maximum Velocity | |

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Power Required for Level, Unaccelerated Flight | |

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Power Available and Maximum Velocity | |

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Reciprocating Engine-Propeller Combination | |

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Jet Engine | |

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Altitude Effects on Power Required and Available | |

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Rate of Climb | |

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Gliding Flight | |

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Absolute and Service Ceilings | |

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Time to Climb | |

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Range and Endurance--Propeller-Driven Airplane | |

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Physical Considerations | |

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Quantitative Formulation | |

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Breguet Formulas (Propeller-Driven Airplane) | |

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Range and Endurance--Jet Airplane | |

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Physical Considerations | |

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Quantitative Formulation | |

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Relations Between C[subscript D,0] and C[subscript D,i] | |

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Takeoff Performance | |

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Landing Performance | |

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Turning Flight and the V-n Diagram | |

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Accelerated Rate of Climb (Energy Method) | |

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Special Considerations for Supersonic Airplanes | |

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Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) | |

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A Comment, and More on the Aspect Ratio | |

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Historical Note: Drag Reduction--The NACA Cowling and the Fillet | |

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Historical Note: Early Predictions of Airplane Performance | |

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Historical Note: Breguet and the Range Formula | |

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Historical Note: Aircraft Design--Evolution and Revolution | |

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Summary | |

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Bibliography | |

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Problems | |

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Principles of Stability and Control | |

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Introduction | |

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Definition of Stability and Control | |

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Static Stability | |

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Dynamic Stability | |

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Control | |

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Partial Derivative | |

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Moments on the Airplane | |

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Absolute Angle of Attack | |

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Criteria for Longitudinal Static Stability | |

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Quantitative Discussion: Contribution of the Wing to M[subscript cg] | |

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Contribution of the Tail to M[subscript cg] | |

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Total Pitching Moment About the Center of Gravity | |

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Equations for Longitudinal Static Stability | |

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Neutral Point | |

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Static Margin | |

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Concept of Static Longitudinal Control | |

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Calculation of Elevator Angle to Trim | |

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Stick-Fixed Versus Stick-Free Static Stability | |

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Elevator Hinge Moment | |

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Stick-Free Longitudinal Static Stability | |

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Directional Static Stability | |

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Lateral Static Stability | |

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A Comment | |

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Historical Note: The Wright Brothers Versus the European Philosophy on Stability and Control | |

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Historical Note: The Development of Flight Controls | |

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Historical Note: The "Tuck-Under" Problem | |

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Summary | |

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Bibliography | |

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Problems | |

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Space Flight (Astronautics) | |

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Introduction | |

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Differential Equations | |

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Lagrange's Equation | |

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Orbit Equation | |

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Force and Energy | |

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Equation of Motion | |

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Space Vehicle Trajectories--Some Basic Aspects | |

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Kepler's Laws | |

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Introduction to Earth and Planetary Entry | |

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Exponential Atmosphere | |

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General Equations of Motion for Atmospheric Entry | |

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Application to Ballistic Entry | |

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Entry Heating | |

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Lifting Entry, with Application to the Space Shuttle | |

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Historical Note: Kepler | |

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Historical Note: Newton and the Law of Gravitation | |

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Historical Note: Lagrange | |

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Historical Note: Unmanned Space Flight | |

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Historical Note: Manned Space Flight | |

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Summary | |

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Bibliography | |

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Problems | |

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Propulsion | |

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Introduction | |

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Propeller | |

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Reciprocating Engine | |

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Jet Propulsion--The Thrust Equation | |

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Turbojet Engine | |

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Turbofan Engine | |

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Ramjet Engine | |

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Rocket Engine | |

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Rocket Propellants--Some Considerations | |

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Liquid Propellants | |

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Solid Propellants | |

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A Comment | |

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Rocket Equation | |

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Rocket Staging | |

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Electric Propulsion | |

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Electron-Ion Thruster | |

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Magnetoplasmadynamic Thruster | |

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Arc-Jet Thruster | |

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A Comment | |

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Historical Note: Early Propeller Development | |

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Historical Note: Early Development of the Internal Combustion Engine for Aviation | |

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Historical Note: Inventors of Early Jet Engines | |

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Historical Note: Early History of Rocket Engines | |

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Summary | |

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Bibliography | |

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Problems | |

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Flight Vehicle Structures and Materials | |

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Introduction | |

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Some Physics of Solid Materials | |

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Stress | |

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Strain | |

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Other Cases | |

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Stress-Strain Diagram | |

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Some Elements of an Aircraft Structure | |

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Materials | |

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Fatigue | |

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Some Comments | |

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Bibliography | |

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Problems | |

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Hypersonic Vehicles | |

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Introduction | |

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Physical Aspects of Hypersonic Flow | |

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Thin Shock Layers | |

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Entropy Layer | |

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Viscous Interaction | |

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High-Temperature Effects | |

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Low-Density Flow | |

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Recapitulation | |

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Newtonian Law for Hypersonic Flow | |

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Some Comments on Hypersonic Airplanes | |

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Summary | |

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Bibliography | |

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Problems | |

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Standard Atmosphere, SI Units | |

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Standard Atmosphere, English Engineering Units | |

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Symbols and Conversion Factors | |

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Airfoil Data | |

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Index | |