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    Metrology in Industry The Key for Quality

    ISBN-10: 1905209517
    ISBN-13: 9781905209514
    Author(s): French College of Metrology Staff, Dominique Placko
    Description: Written by experts from a number of European countries, this study looks at the importance of accurate weights, measures, tests, and timekeeping in today's global economy. Arguing that international conformity to written standards and specifications  More...
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    List Price: $145.00
    Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
    Binding: Hardcover
    Pages: 270
    Size: 6.00" wide x 9.25" long x 0.75" tall
    Weight: 1.144
    Language: English

    Written by experts from a number of European countries, this study looks at the importance of accurate weights, measures, tests, and timekeeping in today's global economy. Arguing that international conformity to written standards and specifications has become a technical, commercial, and statutory necessity in new fields from telecommunication to food safety, these scientists present metrology as an attractive career choice for young scientists and engineers.

    Preface
    Foreword
    Analysis of the Metrological Requirements Needed to Ensure Quality
    Introduction
    Definition of the objectives
    Choice of the method of measurement
    Accounting for the selection of the method
    Defining the method and the principle to implement
    Choice of the means of measurement
    Introduction
    Analysis of what is already available
    Assessment and acquisition of material
    Technical criteria
    Basic characteristics
    Comportment towards influence quantities
    Durability of the instruments used
    Homogeneity of the supply of instruments
    Quality of the supplier's service
    Adaptation of the instrument
    Possibility of traceability
    Computerization and the speed of taking measurements
    Ergonomics
    Capability of measuring instruments
    Economic criteria
    Grid of the analysis of the choice
    Stage 1: primary technical requirements (unavoidably necessary)
    Stage 2: secondary technical requirements (desirable)
    Technical assistance for users of measuring instruments
    The EXERA (France)
    VDI/VDE-GMA (Germany)
    The traceability of the measurements
    The necessity of traceability of the measurements
    Calibration requirements
    The selection of standards
    Conclusion
    Organization of Metrology: Industrial, Scientific, Legal
    A metrological organization: why?
    Metrology: how?
    Scientific and technical metrology
    The BIPM
    Results of the international activities
    Regional organizations
    Euromet
    European Cooperation for Accreditation (EA)
    Accreditation procedure
    Organization at the national level
    The Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d'Essais (LNE)
    The Italian national calibration system (SNT)
    The Swiss national calibration system
    Legal Metrology
    Scope of legal metrology
    The International Organization of Legal Metrology (OIML)
    The European level
    European Union harmonization
    WELMEC
    Other regional bodies
    At national level
    Legal metrology in Italy
    Legal metrology in Switzerland
    Legal metrology in France
    Mastering Measurement Processes Approach to the Setting up of a Metrology Function
    What to do at the beginning?
    Goals and role of the measurement management system - metrological function
    The measurement processes
    Conception and development of a new measurement process
    Analysis of the requirements
    Transcription of the characteristics of the product in "measurand" form or "characteristics to be measured" form
    The development of a measurement process can be managed as a project
    Exploitation of a valid process
    Continuous improvement of measurement processes
    Management of the measuring equipment (metrological confirmation)
    Analysis of the requirement and selection of the measuring equipments
    Technical requirements
    Economic and commercial conditions
    Assessment of the measuring equipment
    Receiving the measuring equipment and putting it into service
    Compliance with the order
    Identification of the measuring equipment
    Inventory (description)
    Technical dossier of the equipment
    Technical documentation
    Basic definitions
    Calibration and verification operations
    Calibration or verification program
    Calibration or verification intervals
    Supervision of the measuring equipment
    Fitness for use of measuring equipment
    Freedom from bias, repeatability, stability
    Maximum permissible errors
    Demands for an assurance of the quality
    Setting up a metrological structure within the firm
    Analysis of the metrological requirements and setting up standards
    Traceability of the measuring instrument(s) to the firm's reference standards
    Traceability of the firm's reference standards to the SI
    Suggested approach for setting up a metrology function
    Bibliography
    Handling of a Bank of Measuring Instruments
    Acquaintance with the bank
    Inventory
    Identification
    Metrological policy of the firm
    Objective and commitment of the firm's management
    Plan of actions to launch
    Awareness, training and vocabulary
    Selection of the material to be followed periodically
    Drafting of the documents
    Codification of the documents
    Work instructions
    Result-recording documents
    Other documents
    Physical handling of the measuring instruments
    Receipt
    Transfer
    Traceability
    Transfer
    Precautions
    Storing and environment
    Maintenance
    Follow-up of the measuring instruments over time
    Periodicity of the follow-up
    Campaign of recall
    Follow-up of the results
    Software for the handling of the means of measurements
    Traceability to National Standards
    Introduction
    Definitions
    Traceability
    Calibration
    Verification
    Traceability chains
    Traceability
    Calibration
    Calibration in an accredited laboratory
    Calibration in a non-accredited laboratory
    Verification
    Verification in an accredited laboratory and in its accreditation scope
    Verification in a non-accredited laboratory or out of the accreditation scope
    Use of calibration and verification results
    Use of the results of a calibration
    Use of the results of a verification
    Particular cases
    "Self-calibrating" or "self-gauging" measuring instruments
    Complex instruments in which components/equipments and software are narrowly combined and large measurement ranges are covered for complex quantities
    Metrology in chemistry and physical methods of chemical analysis
    Traceabilty in metrology in chemistry
    Influence of the principle of the method
    Absolute methods
    Relative method
    Comparative method
    "Documentary" traceability
    Control of the reference materials
    Conclusion
    Assessment of traceability
    Bibliography
    Calibration Intervals and Methods for Monitoring the Measurement Processes
    Normative requirements
    Methods for monitoring the instruments in use - general criteria
    First method: metrological redundancies
    Second method: checking the coherence of the results
    Third method: "monitoring standards" and statistical supervision of the measurement processes
    Statistical control of the measurement processes
    Control charts
    Use of the monitoring methods
    The determination of the calibration intervals
    Bibliography
    Measurements and Uncertainties
    Introduction
    Measurement of physical quantity
    Analysis of the measurement process
    The cause and effect diagram method
    Using the list published in the GUM (section 3.3.2)
    Errors
    Cutting down the errors
    Cutting down random errors by repeating measurements
    Cutting down systematic errors by applying corrections
    Modeling of the measurement process
    Measurement procedure and model of the measurement process
    An essential stage for the assessment of uncertainty: modeling the measurement
    Assessment of the uncertainty of the input quantities
    Type A methods
    Type B methods
    Comparing the Type A and Type B methods
    Calculating the combined uncertainty on the result
    Situation when all the input quantities are independent
    Situation when the input quantities are independent and the model is a sum
    Situation when the model is a product
    Situation when the input quantities are dependent
    Assessment of the covariances by assessing a coefficient of correlation r(x[subscript i], x[subscript j])
    Assessment of the covariances by calculating the terms of covariance
    Assessment of the covariances by considering the terms common to two input quantities
    Use of the performances of the method (repeatability and freedom of bias) to assess the uncertainty of the measurement result
    Intra- or interlaboratory approaches
    Intra-laboratory approach
    Interlaboratory approach
    Data processing for intra- and interlaboratory approaches
    Assessment of the repeatability and the reproducibility
    Assessment of the freedom of bias (trueness)
    Evaluation of the linearity
    The terms [characters not reproducible]
    Reporting of the measurement result
    Example
    Bibliography
    The Environment of Measuring
    The premises
    Ambient temperature
    Relative humidity
    Handling of the air conditioning systems
    Power network
    Radioelectric disturbances
    Measurements on-site
    The personnel
    The connection of metrology function
    Staff involved in the metrology function
    The qualification of the personnel
    The documentation
    Filing of the documents
    Documents dealing with the quality system
    Records regarding quality
    Management of the documents
    Bibliography
    Appendix
    About Measuring
    Preliminary information
    Physical quantity
    The object to be measured
    Field of measurement
    Four types of uses of measuring instruments
    Influencing quantities
    Choice of a measuring principle
    Differential measurement
    Direct measurement
    Indirect measurement
    Practicing in metrology
    Implementing the instruments
    Precautions before measuring
    Measurements
    Variations and their sign
    The time factor
    Expression of the results
    Graphs
    Histograms
    What qualities does a metrologist require?
    Be inquisitive
    Be tidy and methodical
    Be open to doubt
    Be observant
    Be honest
    Organization of Metrology at Solvay Research and Technology
    Presentation of the company
    Organization of the metrology sector
    Creation
    Missions
    Organization
    Geographic localization of the activities
    Composition of the bank of measuring equipment
    Metrology
    Identification
    Connection of the standards
    Periodicity of the calibrations
    Calibration operations
    Documentation of the calibration results
    Verdict of the metrological confirmation
    Indication of the state of the calibrations
    Personnel and subcontracting
    Metrology within the Scope of the ISO 9001 Standard
    Introduction
    Introduction to the evolution of the standard
    The concept of continuous improvement
    The process approach
    Measurement control process
    The ISO 9001 (2000) standard step-by-step
    Conclusion
    Training for the Metrology Professions in France
    The metrology function in a firm's strategy
    Metrology profession
    Metrological engineer
    Metrological technician
    Metrological operator
    Initial training
    Schools for engineers
    Courses for higher level technicians
    Vocational high schools
    Continuing education
    Long-lasting training courses
    The teaching of metrology in secondary schools
    Prospects for the development of long-lasting training courses
    Bibliography
    The Authors
    Index

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