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    Stepping into Virtual Reality

    ISBN-10: 1848001169
    ISBN-13: 9781848001169
    Edition: 2008
    Description: Virtual reality techniques are increasingly becoming indispensible in many areas including medicine, entertainment, architecture, education and manufacturing, with VR tools being used for testing and prototyping products at design stages, as well as  More...
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    List Price: $89.95
    Copyright Year: 2008
    Publisher: Springer
    Publication Date: 5/7/2008
    Binding: Paperback
    Pages: 214
    Size: 6.25" wide x 9.00" long x 0.50" tall
    Weight: 0.836
    Language: English

    Virtual reality techniques are increasingly becoming indispensible in many areas including medicine, entertainment, architecture, education and manufacturing, with VR tools being used for testing and prototyping products at design stages, as well as for creating applications in finished products. This book looks at how to generate advanced virtual reality worlds. It covers principles, techniques, devices and mathematical foundations, beginning with basic definitions, and then moving on to the latest results from current research and exploring the social implications of these. Very practical in its approach, the book is fully illustrated in colour and contains numerous examples, exercises and case studies. Careful reading of this textbook will allow students and practitioners alike to gain a practical understanding of virtual reality concepts, devices and possible applications.

    List of Figures
    Introduction
    Virtual Reality: The Science of Illusion
    Basic Concepts
    Immersion
    Presence
    A Brief History of Virtual Reality
    Reality-Virtuality Continuum
    Fundamentals
    Computer Graphics
    Mathematics
    Coordinate Systems
    Vectors, Transformations and Matrices
    Angular Representations
    Projections
    3D Modeling
    Geometric Representations
    Curves
    Surfaces
    3D Rendering
    Local Illumination Model
    Global Illumination Model
    Textures
    Rendering Pipeline
    Computer Animation
    Introduction
    Animation Types: Real Time and Image by Image
    Articulated Bodies and Virtual Characters
    Motion Control Methods
    Motion Capture and Performance Animation
    Optical Motion Capture Systems
    Magnetic Trackers and Systems
    Motion Capture Advantages and Disadvantages
    Key-Frame Animation
    Shape Interpolation and Parametric Keyframe Animation
    Kochanek-Bartels Spline Interpolation
    Inverse Kinematics
    Motion Retargeting
    Procedural Animation
    Physics-Based Animation
    Behavioral Animation
    Virtual Worlds
    Virtual Characters
    Virtual Humans in Virtual Environments
    Character Skinning
    Skeleton-Based Deformations
    Data-Driven Methods
    Physics-Based Approaches
    Locomotion
    Locomotion Generation
    PCA-Based Locomotion
    Virtual Human-Object interaction
    Feature Modeling and Smart Objects
    Grasping
    Motion Planning
    Facial Animation
    Autonomous Characters
    Why Autonomous Virtual Characters?
    Properties of Autonomous Virtual Characters
    Behaviors for Autonomous Virtual Characters
    Crowd Simulation
    Architecture of Virtual Reality Systems
    Scene Graph-Based Systems
    Semantic Virtual Environments
    Generic System Architecture for VR Systems
    Distributed Virtual Environments
    Communication Architecture
    Interest Management
    Concurrency Control
    Data Replication
    Load Distribution
    Mixed Realities
    Augmented Reality and Augmented Virtuality
    Tracking Techniques
    Markers-Based Tracking
    Marker-Less Tracking
    Mixed Reality Tool Kits
    Perceiving Virtual Worlds
    Vision
    Graphical Display Technologies
    Cathode-Ray Tubes
    Liquid Crystal Displays
    Plasma Displays
    Virtual Reality Displays
    Head-Mounted Displays
    Fish Tank VR
    Handheld Displays
    Large Projection Screens
    CAVE Systems
    Audition
    The Need for Sound in VR
    Recording and Reproduction of Spatial Sound
    Synthesis of Spatial Sound
    Sound Rendering
    Head-Related Transfer Function
    3D Sound Imaging
    Utilization of Loudspeaker Location
    Sound Systems for VR
    Sound Hardware
    Sound Engines
    Touch
    The Need for Touch in VR
    Data Gloves
    Haptic Rendering
    History of Haptic Rendering
    Haptic Interfaces
    Vibrotactile Displays
    Tactile Displays
    Kinesthetic Displays
    Smell and Taste
    The Need for Smells and Tastes in VR
    Smell Interfaces
    Taste interfaces
    Applications
    Health Sciences
    Virtual Surgery
    Virtual Rehabilitation and Therapy
    Physiotherapy
    Psychological Therapy
    Virtual Anatomy
    Cultural Heritage
    Virtual Campeche and Calakmul
    Virtual Dunhuang
    Terracotta Soldiers
    EU-INCO CAHRISMA and ERATO
    EU-IST Archeoguide
    EU-IST Lifeplus
    Other VR Applications
    Vehicle Simulators
    Manufacturing
    Entertainment
    References
    Index

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