Introduction | p. 1 |

Experimental Psychology and the Scientific Method | p. 2 |

The Need for Scientific Methodology | p. 4 |

The Characteristics of Modern Science | p. 9 |

The Tools of Psychological Science | p. 15 |

Scientific Explanation in Psychological Science | p. 19 |

The Organization of the Text | p. 22 |

Summary | p. 23 |

Key Terms | p. 24 |

Review and Study Questions | p. 25 |

Critical Thinking Exercise | p. 26 |

Online Resources | p. 26 |

Research Ethics | p. 27 |

Research Ethics | p. 28 |

The American Psychological Association Guidelines | p. 31 |

Protecting the Welfare of Animal Subjects | p. 38 |

Fraud in Science | p. 46 |

Plagiarism | p. 48 |

Summary | p. 49 |

Key Terms | p. 50 |

Review and Study Questions | p. 51 |

Critical Thinking Exercise | p. 52 |

Online Resources | p. 52 |

Alternatives to Experimentation: Nonexperimental Designs | p. 53 |

Describing Research Activities | p. 55 |

Nonexperimental Approaches | p. 56 |

Sampling | p. 75 |

Summary | p. 82 |

Key Terms | p. 83 |

Review and Study Questions | p. 85 |

Critical Thinking Exercise | p. 86 |

Online Resources | p. 86 |

Alternatives to Experimentation: Correlational and Quasi-Experimental Designs | p. 87 |

Correlational Designs | p. 90 |

Quasi-Experimental Designs | p. 102 |

Summary | p. 113 |

Key Terms | p. 114 |

Review and Study Questions | p. 115 |

Critical Thinking Exercise | p. 116 |

Online Resources | p. 116 |

Formulating the Hypothesis | p. 117 |

The Characteristics of an Experimental Hypothesis | p. 119 |

The Inductive Model | p. 123 |

The Deductive Model | p. 124 |

Combining Induction and Deduction | p. 125 |

Building on Prior Research | p. 126 |

Serendipity and the Windfall Hypothesis | p. 127 |

Intuition | p. 128 |

When All Else Fails | p. 131 |

Searching the Research Literature | p. 132 |

Summary | p. 136 |

Key Terms | p. 137 |

Review and Study Questions | p. 137 |

Critical Thinking Exercise | p. 138 |

Online Resources | p. 139 |

Method | p. 141 |

The Basics of Experimentation | p. 142 |

Independent and Dependent Variables | p. 144 |

Operational Definitions | p. 151 |

Evaluating Operational Definitions | p. 161 |

Evaluating the Experiment: Internal Validity | p. 168 |

Planning the Method Section | p. 178 |

Summary | p. 181 |

Key Terms | p. 182 |

Review and Study Questions | p. 184 |

Critical Thinking Exercise | p. 185 |

Online Resources | p. 185 |

Solving Problems: Controlling Extraneous Variables | p. 186 |

Physical Variables | p. 187 |

Social Variables | p. 191 |

Personality Variables | p. 203 |

Context Variables | p. 206 |

Summary | p. 208 |

Key Terms | p. 209 |

Review and Study Questions | p. 210 |

Critical Thinking Exercise | p. 211 |

Online Resources | p. 211 |

Basic Between-Subjects Designs | p. 212 |

Selecting and Recruiting Subjects | p. 214 |

One Independent Variable: Two-Group Designs | p. 217 |

Two Independent Groups | p. 218 |

Two Matched Groups | p. 229 |

Multiple Groups | p. 233 |

Summary | p. 239 |

Key Terms | p. 241 |

Review and Study Questions | p. 242 |

Critical Thinking Exercise | p. 243 |

Online Resources | p. 243 |

Between-Subjects Factorial Designs | p. 244 |

More Than One Independent Variable | p. 245 |

Laying Out a Factorial Design | p. 248 |

A Research Example | p. 253 |

Choosing a Between-Subjects Design | p. 259 |

Summary | p. 264 |

Key Terms | p. 265 |

Review and Study Questions | p. 265 |

Critical Thinking Exercise | p. 266 |

Online Resources | p. 266 |

Within-Subjects Designs | p. 267 |

A Within-Subjects Experiment: Perceptual Bias for Forward Motion | p. 270 |

Within-Subjects Factorial Designs | p. 272 |

Mixed Designs | p. 273 |

Advantages of Within-Subjects Designs | p. 274 |

Disadvantages of Within-Subjects Designs | p. 276 |

Controlling Within-Subjects Designs | p. 278 |

How Can You Choose a Design? | p. 291 |

Summary | p. 292 |

Key Terms | p. 293 |

Review and Study Questions | p. 294 |

Critical Thinking Exercise | p. 296 |

Online Resources | p. 296 |

Within-Subjects Designs: Small N | p. 297 |

Small N Designs | p. 298 |

ABA Designs | p. 303 |

Multiple-Baseline Design | p. 309 |

Discrete Trials Designs | p. 311 |

When to Use Large N and Small N Designs | p. 312 |

Summary | p. 315 |

Key Terms | p. 316 |

Review and Study Questions | p. 317 |

Critical Thinking Exercise | p. 318 |

Online Resources | p. 318 |

Results: Coping With Data | p. 319 |

Why We Need Statistics | p. 320 |

Weighing the Evidence | p. 322 |

Statistical Inference: An Overview | p. 323 |

Applying Statistical Inference: An Example | p. 330 |

The Odds of Finding Significance | p. 339 |

Test Statistics | p. 344 |

Organizing and Summarizing Data | p. 345 |

Summary | p. 354 |

Key Terms | p. 355 |

Review and Study Questions | p. 357 |

Critical Thinking Exercise | p. 358 |

Online Resources | p. 358 |

Analyzing Results: Two Group Examples | p. 359 |

Which Test Do I Use? | p. 360 |

The Chi Square Test | p. 363 |

The t Test | p. 368 |

Summary | p. 382 |

Key Terms | p. 383 |

Review and Study Questions | p. 383 |

Critical Thinking Exercise | p. 386 |

Online Resources | p. 386 |

Analyzing Results: Multiple-Groups and Factorial Experiments | p. 387 |

Analysis of Variance | p. 388 |

Sources of Variability | p. 389 |

A One-Way Between-Subjects Analysis of Variance | p. 392 |

One-Way Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance | p. 405 |

Analyzing Data from a Between-Subjects Factorial Experiment | p. 405 |

A Two-Way Analysis of Variance | p. 408 |

Repeated Measures and Mixed Factorial Designs | p. 419 |

Summary | p. 421 |

Key Terms | p. 422 |

Review and Study Questions | p. 423 |

Critical Thinking Exercise | p. 426 |

Online Resources | p. 426 |

Discussion | p. 427 |

Drawing Conclusions: The Search for the Elusive Bottom Line | p. 428 |

Evaluating the Experiment from the Inside: Internal Validity | p. 430 |

Taking a Broader Perspective: The Problem of External Validity | p. 435 |

Handling a Nonsignificant Outcome | p. 445 |

Summary | p. 449 |

Key Terms | p. 450 |

Review and Study Questions | p. 450 |

Critical Thinking Exercise | p. 452 |

Online Resources | p. 452 |

Writing the Research Report | p. 453 |

The Written Report: Purpose and Format | p. 454 |

Major Sections | p. 456 |

Looking at a Journal Article | p. 464 |

Preparing Your Manuscript: Procedural Details | p. 478 |

Making Revisions | p. 481 |

Summary | p. 484 |

Key Terms | p. 484 |

Review and Study Questions | p. 485 |

Critical Thinking Exercise | p. 486 |

Online Resources | p. 487 |

Appendices | |

Computational Formulas | p. 489 |

Statistical Tables | p. 495 |

A Journal Article in Manuscript Form | p. 505 |

Glossary | p. 531 |

References | p. 545 |

Index | p. 555 |

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