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    Challenging Nature Local Knowledge, Agroscience, and Food Security in Tanga Region, Tanzania

    ISBN-10: 0226675807
    ISBN-13: 9780226675800
    Author(s): Philip W. Porter
    Description: Tanga Region, Tanzania, is an area of persistent rural poverty with a long history of drought, floods, food shortages, famine, and social and economic disruption. Though farmers have been cultivating the land therenbsp;for hundreds of years, they  More...
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    List Price: $60.00
    Publisher: University of Chicago Press
    Binding: Hardcover
    Pages: 288
    Size: 6.00" wide x 9.00" long x 0.75" tall
    Weight: 1.298
    Language: English

    Tanga Region, Tanzania, is an area of persistent rural poverty with a long history of drought, floods, food shortages, famine, and social and economic disruption. Though farmers have been cultivating the land therenbsp;for hundreds of years, they have consistently been unable to supply adequate food for the region's inhabitants. In Challenging Nature, Philip Porter examines eighteen farming communities to understand what the farmers there know about their environment and which historical and economic factors play into the lack of food security.nbsp; Porter first began work on this project in 1972, asking 250 farmers in the region about life history, environmental and agricultural changes, types of crops grown and methods of planting, environmental assessments, agricultural practices, food and water supplies, training and education, and attitudes toward nature. Twenty years later, he returned and reinterviewed as many farmers as could be found from the first survey. The result contextualizes the environmental history of the region while informing current and future agricultural development.

    Philip W. Porter, PhD, is Professor of Geography at the University of Minnesota. His research, concentrated mainly in east Africa, has combined themes in cultural ecology, physical geography, political economy, and social theory. Eric S. Sheppard, PhD, is Professor of Geography at the University of Minnesota. His research interests include economic and social theory, the geographical underpinnings of political and economic processes, and development dynamics from the urban to the global scale.

    Acknowledgments
    Research Questions and Conceptual Contexts
    Introduction to the Area and the Research Questions
    Conceptual Contexts
    Livelihood and Poverty in Tanga Region
    Peasant Farming in Lowland Tanga
    Poverty
    Illness and Lost Workdays
    Material Culture
    Summary and Analysis
    Biophysical Environment and Local Knowledge
    Topography and Geology
    Climate
    Soils
    Vegetation
    Some Examples of Local Knowledge
    Tanga's Regional History
    Historical Events
    Cultural and Demographic Character
    Summary and Analysis
    Introducing the Eighteen Villages
    Research Procedure
    Student Researcher Assessments of the 18 Villages
    Kwadundwa
    Mgera
    Kwediamba
    Minazini
    Kwamsisi
    Mzundu
    Kwamgwe
    Mandera
    Mlembule
    Mkomazi
    Vugiri
    Magoma
    Kisiwani
    Kiwanda
    Daluni
    Mwakijembe
    Maranzara (Pongwe)
    Moa
    Summary and Analysis
    Assessing Different Farm Management Practices
    Introducing the Energy-Water Balance Model
    Choice of Site and Soil
    Choice of Crop
    Growing Enough Food
    Delay in Planting
    Spacing of Crop
    Intercropping
    Provision of Supplemental Water
    Summary and Analysis
    Drought, Food Shortages, and Ways of Coping
    When Things Go Wrong
    The 1953 Handeni Famine
    Institutionalized Coping with Food Shortages
    Strategies Adopted by Farmers to Cope with Drought and Food Shortages
    Farmer Attitudes toward Nature
    Changes in Crops Grown
    Summary and Analysis
    Local Knowledge, Sustainability Science
    Institutional Agricultural Research
    Sustainable Transitions Elsewhere
    A Sustainable Transition for Tanga Region?
    The Task Ahead
    Agrometeorological Modeling
    Agroclimatological Survey of Tanga Region
    Analysis of the Crop Calendars: Timing of Planting and Season Length for Maize
    Chronology for Tanga Region
    Notes
    Bibliography
    Index

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