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    Psychologist As Detective An Introduction to Conducting Research in Psychology

    ISBN-10: 0205859070
    ISBN-13: 9780205859078
    Author(s): Randolph A. Smith, Stephen F. Davis
    Description: Understanding psychological research by finding a problem, discovering the clues, and evaluating the evidence.The Psychologist as Detectives introduces students to the research process. The authors treat psychological research as a detective case in  More...
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    List Price: $126.99
    Edition: 6th
    Publisher: Pearson Education, Limited
    Binding: Hardcover
    Pages: 456
    Size: 7.25" wide x 9.25" long x 0.75" tall
    Weight: 1.9600000000000000000000000000
    Language: English

    Understanding psychological research by finding a problem, discovering the clues, and evaluating the evidence.The Psychologist as Detectives introduces students to the research process. The authors treat psychological research as a detective case in which a problem is presented, clues are discovered, evidence is evaluated, and a report is prepared for consideration by peers.Learning GoalsUpon completing this book, readers will be able to:Think critically about research and research methodsAnalyze research as a problem solving procedureDevelop research skills by looking at examples of research studiesEvaluate evidence from a research study and prepare a report or summary of the caseNote: MySearchLab does not come automatically packaged with this text. To purchase MySearchLab, please visit: www.mysearchlab.com or you can purchase a ValuePack of the text + MySearchLab (at no additional cost): ValuePack ISBN-10: 0205861792/ ValuePack ISBN-13: 9780205861798.

    Preface
    Psychological Research and the Research Methods Course
    How Psychologists Acquire Knowledge
    The Research Process
    Finding a Problem
    Reviewing the Literature
    Theoretical Considerations
    Hypothesis
    Research Plan
    Conducting the Research Project
    Analysis of Research Findings
    Decisions in Terms of Past Research and Theory
    Preparing the Research Report
    Sharing Your Results: Presentation and Publication
    Finding a New Problem
    Why Is the Research Methods Course Important?
    Review Summary
    Check Your Progress
    Key Terms
    Looking Ahead
    Developing a Good Research Idea and Conducting an Ethical Project
    The Research Idea
    Characteristics of Good Research Ideas
    Sources of Research Ideas
    Developing a Research Question
    Surveying the Psychological Literature
    Review Summary
    Check Your Progress
    The Need for Ethical Principles
    APA Principles in the Conduct of Research With Humans
    Is Deception in Research Necessary?
    Informed Consent
    Participants at Risk and Participants at Minimal Risk
    Vulnerable Populations
    The Debriefing Session
    The Ethical Use of Animals in Psychological Research
    The Institutional Review Board
    The Experimenter's Responsibility
    The Participants' Responsibility
    The Researcher's Ethical Obligations Once the Research Is Completed
    Plagiarism
    Fabrication of Data
    Lying With Statistics
    Citing Your References Correctly
    Review Summary
    Check Your Progress
    Key Terms
    Looking Ahead
    Qualitative Research Methods
    General Overview
    Characteristics of Qualitative Research
    Data Analysis
    Selected Examples of Qualitative Research Methods
    Naturalistic Observation
    Ethnographic Inquiry
    Focus Groups
    Interview Studies
    Narrative Studies
    Case Studies
    Artifact Analysis
    Historiographies
    Symbolic Interaction
    Grounded Theory
    Participatory Action Research
    Review Summary
    Check Your Progress
    Key Terms
    Looking Ahead
    Nonexperimental Methods: Descriptive Methods, Correlational Studies, Ex Post Facto Studies, Surveys and Questionnaires, Sampling, and Basic Research Strategies
    Descriptive Methods
    Archival and Previously Recorded Sources of Data
    Naturalistic Observation
    Choosing Behaviors and Recording Techniques
    Correlational Studies
    The Nature of Correlations
    Correlational Research
    Review Summary
    Check Your Progress
    Ex Post Facto Studies
    Surveys, Questionnaires, Tests, and Inventories
    Surveys and Questionnaires
    Tests and Inventories
    Sampling Considerations and Basic Research Strategies
    Sampling
    Basic Research Strategies
    Review Summary
    Check Your Progress
    Key Terms
    Looking Ahead
    Using the Scientific Method in Psychology
    Components of the Scientific Method
    Objectivity
    Confirmation of Findings
    Self-Correction
    Control
    The Psychological Experiment
    Independent Variable
    Dependent Variable
    Extraneous Variables
    Establishing Cause-and-Effect Relations
    Formulating the Research Hypothesis
    Characteristics of the Research Hypothesis
    Types of Statements
    Types of Reasoning
    Directional Versus Nondirectional Research Hypotheses
    An Alternate View of Hypothesis Testing
    Review Summary
    Check Your Progress
    Key Terms
    Conducting a Good Experiment I: Variables and Control
    The Nature of Variables
    Operationally Defining Variables
    Independent Variables
    Types of IVs
    Extraneous Variables (Confounders)
    Dependent Variables
    Selecting the DV
    Recording or Measuring the DV
    Recording More Than One DV
    Characteristics of a Good DV
    Nuisance Variables
    Review Summary
    Check Your Progress
    Controlling Extraneous Variables
    Basic Control Techniques
    Review Summary
    Check Your Progress
    Key Terms
    Looking Ahead
    Conducting a Good Experiment II: Final Considerations, Unanticipated Influences, and Cross-Cultural Issues
    Participants
    Types of Participants
    Number of Participants
    Apparatus
    IV Presentation
    DV Recording
    Review Summary
    Check Your Progress
    The Experimenter as an Extraneous Variable
    Experimenter Characteristics
    Experimenter Expectancies
    Controlling Experimenter Effects
    Participant Perceptions as Extraneous Variables
    Demand Characteristics and Good Participants
    Response Bias
    Controlling Participant Effects
    Review Summary
    Check Your Progress
    The Interface Between Research and Culture
    Culture, Knowledge, and Truth
    The Effect of Culture on Research
    Methodology and Analysis Issues
    Review Summary
    Check Your Progress
    Key Terms
    Looking Ahead
    Internal and External Validity
    Internal Validity: Evaluating Your Experiment From the Inside
    Threats to Internal Validity
    Protecting Internal Validity
    Review Summary
    Check Your Progress
    External Validity: Generalizing Your Experiment to the Outside
    Threats to External Validity (Based on Methods)
    Threats to External Validity (Based on Our Participants)
    The Devil's Advocate: Is External Validity Always Necessary?
    Review Summary
    Check Your Progress
    Key Terms
    Looking Ahead
    Using Statistics to Answer Questions
    Descriptive Statistics
    Scales of Measurement
    Measures of Central Tendency
    Graphing Your Results
    Calculating and Computing Statistics
    Measures of Variability
    Review Summary
    Check Your Progress
    Correlation
    The Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient
    Inferential Statistics
    What Is Significant?
    The t Test
    One-Tail Versus Two-Tail Tests of Significance
    The Logic of Significance Testing
    When Statistics Go Astray: Type I and Type II Errors
    Effect Size
    Review Summary
    Check Your Progress
    Key Terms
    Looking Ahead
    Designing, Conducting, Analyzing, and Interpreting Experiments with Two Groups
    Experimental Design: The Basic Building Blocks
    The Two-Group Design
    Review Summary
    Check Your Progress
    Comparing Two-Group Designs
    Variations on the Two-Group Design
    Review Summary
    Check Your Progress
    Statistical Analysis: What do Your Data Show?
    The Relation Between Experimental Design and Statistics
    Analyzing Two-Group Designs
    Calculating Your Statistics
    Interpretation: Making Sense of Your Statistics
    Interpreting Computer Statistical Output
    The Continuing Research Problem
    Review Summary
    Check Your Progress
    Key Terms
    Looking Ahead
    Designing, Conducting, Analyzing, and Interpreting Experiments with More Than Two Groups
    Experimental Design: Adding to the Basic Building Block
    The Multiple-Group Design
    Comparing the Multiple-Group and Two-Group Designs
    Comparing Multiple-Group Designs
    Variations on the Multiple-Group Design
    Review Summary
    Check Your Progress
    Statistical Analysis: What Do Your Data Show?
    Analyzing Multiple-Group Designs
    Planning Your Experiment
    Rationale of ANOVA
    Interpretation: Making Sense of Your Statistics
    Interpreting Computer Statistical Output
    The Continuing Research Problem
    Review Summary
    Check Your Progress
    Key Terms
    Looking Ahead
    Designing, Conducting, Analyzing, and Interpreting Experiments with Multiple Independent Variables
    Experimental Design: Doubling the Basic Building Block
    The Factorial Design
    Review Summary
    Check Your Progress
    Comparing the Factorial Design to Two-Group and Multiple-Group Designs
    Choosing a Factorial Design
    Variations on Factorial Designs
    Review Summary
    Check Your Progress
    Statistical Analysis: What Do Your Data Show?
    Naming Factorial Designs
    Planning the Statistical Analysis
    Rationale of Factorial ANOVA
    Understanding Interactions
    Interpretation: Making Sense of Your Statistics
    Interpreting Computer Statistical Output
    A Final Note
    The Continuing Research Problem
    Review Summary
    Check Your Progress
    Key Terms
    Looking Ahead
    Alternative Research Designs
    Protecting Internal Validity Revisited
    Examining Your Experiment From the Inside
    Protecting Internal Validity With Research Designs
    Conclusion
    Review Summary
    Check Your Progress
    Single-Case Experimental Designs
    History of Single-Case Experimental Designs
    Uses of Single-Case Experimental Designs
    General Procedures of Single-Case Experimental Designs
    Statistics and Single-Case Experimental Designs
    Representative Single-Case Experimental Designs
    Review Summary
    Check Your Progress
    Quasi-Experimental Designs
    History of Quasi-Experimental Designs
    Uses of Quasi-Experimental Designs
    Representative Quasi-Experimental Designs
    Review Summary
    Check Your Progress
    Key Terms
    Looking Ahead
    Writing and Assembling an APA-Format Research Report
    What Is APA Format?
    Sections of the APA-Format Paper
    Title Page
    Author Note
    Abstract
    Introduction
    Method
    Results
    Discussion
    References
    Appendix
    Headings
    Review Summary
    Check Your Progress
    Writing in APA Style
    General Guidelines
    Grammatical Guidelines
    APA Editorial Style
    Preparing Your Manuscript
    Student Views of Professional Activities
    Review Summary
    Check Your Progress
    Key Terms
    Looking Ahead
    Statistical Tables
    Selected Statistical Formulae
    Factorial Design with Three Independent Variables
    Check Your Progress Answers
    Glossary
    References
    Name Index
    Subject Index

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