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    Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing A Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives

    ISBN-10: 080131903X
    ISBN-13: 9780801319037
    Author(s): Lorin W. Anderson, David R. Krathwohl, Benjamin Samuel Bloom, Peter W. Airasian, Kathleen A. Cruikshank
    Description: Embodying advances in cognitive psychology since the publication of Bloom's taxonomy, this revision of that framework is designed to help teachers understand and implement standards-based curriculums as well as facilitate constructing and analyzing  More...
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    List Price: $73.60
    Edition: 2nd
    Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Incorporated
    Binding: Hardcover
    Pages: 336
    Size: 7.48" wide x 9.17" long x 0.59" tall
    Weight: 1.408
    Language: English

    Embodying advances in cognitive psychology since the publication of Bloom's taxonomy, this revision of that framework is designed to help teachers understand and implement standards-based curriculums as well as facilitate constructing and analyzing their own. A revision only in the sense that it builds on the original framework, it is a completely new manuscript in both text and organization. Its two-dimensional framework interrelates knowledge with the cognitive processes students use to gain and work with knowledge. Together, these define the goals, curriculum standards, and objectives students are expected to learn. The framework facilitates the exploration of curriculums from four perspectives-what is intended to be taught, how it is to be taught, how learning is to be assessed, and how well the intended aims, instruction and assessments are aligned for effective education. This "revisited" framework allows you to connect learning from all these perspectives.

    Peter W. Airasian is Professor of Education at Boston College, where he is Chair of the Educational Research, Measurement, and Evaluation Program. His main teaching responsibilities are instructing pre- and in-service teachers in classroom assessment strategies. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago, with a concentration in testing, evaluation, and assessment. He is a former high school chemistry and biology teacher. He has authored numerous books on assessment, including of Minimal Competency Testing (1979), School Effectiveness: A Reassessment of the Evidence (1980), The Effects of Standardized Testing (1982), Teacher Evaluation Toolkit (1997), Assessment in the Classroom (1997 and 2000), and Classroom Assessment (1991, 1994, 1997, and 2001)). He is a past Chair of the American Educational Research Association's Special Interest Group on Classroom Assessment. Currently, he is continuing his study of the role of assessments in classrooms and examining issues related to the evaluation of teachers.

    List of Tables and Figures
    Preface
    Foreword
    The Taxonomy: Educational Objectives and Student Learning
    Introduction
    The Need for a Taxonomy
    Using Our Increased Understanding
    The Taxonomy Table, Objectives, and Instructional Time
    The Taxonomy Table and Instruction
    The Taxonomy Table and Assessment
    The Concept of Alignment
    Teachers as Curriculum Makers Versus Teachers as Curriculum Implementers: A Closing Comment
    The Structure, Specificity, and Problems of Objectives
    The Structure of Objectives
    Content Versus Knowledge
    Behavior Versus Cognitive Processes
    Specificity of Objectives
    Global Objectives
    Educational Objectives
    Instructional Objectives
    Summary of Levels of Objectives
    What Objectives Are Not
    A Changing Vocabulary of Objectives
    Problems with Objectives
    Specificity and Inclusiveness
    The Lock-Step Nature of Objectives
    What Does an Objective Represent--Learning or Performance?
    The Restricted Use of Objectives
    Concluding Comment
    The Revised Taxonomy Structure
    The Taxonomy Table
    Categories of the Knowledge Dimension
    Categories of the Cognitive Process Dimension
    The Taxonomy Table and Objectives: A Diagrammatic Summary
    Why Categorize Objectives?
    Our Use of Multiple Forms of Definition
    Verbal Descriptions
    Sample Objectives
    Sample Assessment Tasks
    Sample Instructional Activities
    Closing Comment: A Look Ahead
    The Knowledge Dimension
    A Distinction Between Knowledge and Subject Matter Content: A Tale of Four Teachers
    Different Types of Knowledge
    A Distinction Between Factual and Conceptual Knowledge
    A Rationale for Metacognitive Knowledge
    Categories of the Knowledge Dimension
    Factual Knowledge
    Knowledge of Terminology
    Knowledge of Specific Details and Elements
    Conceptual Knowledge
    Knowledge of Classifications and Categories
    Knowledge of Principles and Generalizations
    Knowledge of Theories, Models, and Structures
    Procedural Knowledge
    Knowledge of Subject-Specific Skills and Algorithms
    Knowledge of Subject-Specific Techniques and Methods
    Knowledge of Criteria for Determining when to Use Appropriate Procedures
    Metacognitive Knowledge
    Strategic Knowledge
    Knowledge About Cognitive Tasks, Including Contextual and Conditional Knowledge
    Self-Knowledge
    Assessing Objectives Involving Metacognitive Knowledge
    Conclusion
    The Cognitive Process Dimension
    A Tale of Three Learning Outcomes
    No Learning
    Rote Learning
    Meaningful Learning
    Meaningful Learning as Constructing Knowledge Frameworks
    Cognitive Processes for Retention and Transfer
    The Categories of the Cognitive Process Dimension
    Remember
    Recognizing
    Recalling
    Understand
    Interpreting
    Exemplifying
    Classifying
    Summarizing
    Inferring
    Comparing
    Explaining
    Apply
    Executing
    Implementing
    Analyze
    Differentiating
    Organizing
    Attributing
    Evaluate
    Checking
    Critiquing
    Create
    Generating
    Planning
    Producing
    Decontextualized and Contextualized Cognitive Processes
    An Example of Educational Objectives in Context
    Remembering What Was Learned
    Making Sense of and Using What Was Learned
    Conclusion
    The Taxonomy in Use
    Using the Taxonomy Table
    Using the Taxonomy Table in Analyzing Your Own Work
    Using the Taxonomy Table in Analyzing the Work of Others
    The Taxonomy Table Revisited
    The Learning Question
    The Instruction Question
    The Assessment Question
    The Alignment Question
    Problems in Classifying Objectives
    The Level of Specificity Problem
    The Prior Learning Problem
    Differentiating Objectives from Activities
    Some Helpful Hints
    Consider the Verb-Noun Combination
    Relate Type of Knowledge to Process
    Make Sure You Have the Right Noun
    Rely on Multiple Sources
    Introduction to the Vignettes
    Characterization of the Vignettes
    The Curriculum Unit
    Central Components of the Vignette Descriptions
    Using the Taxonomy Table to Analyze the Vignettes
    The Analytic Process: A Summary
    Organization and Structure of the Vignette Chapters
    A Closing Comment
    Nutrition Vignette
    Objectives
    Instructional Activities
    Assessment
    Closing Commentary
    The Learning Question
    The Instruction Question
    The Assessment Question
    The Alignment Question
    Closing Questions
    Attachments
    Macbeth Vignette
    Objectives
    Instructional Activities
    Assessment
    Closing Commentary
    The Learning Question
    The Instruction Question
    The Assessment Question
    The Alignment Question
    Closing Questions
    Attachments
    Addition Facts Vignette
    Objectives
    Instructional Activities
    Assessment
    Closing Commentary
    The Learning Question
    The Instruction Question
    The Assessment Question
    The Alignment Question
    Closing Questions
    Parliamentary Acts Vignette
    Objectives
    Instructional Activities
    Assessment
    Closing Commentary
    The Learning Question
    The Instruction Question
    The Assessment Question
    The Alignment Question
    Closing Questions
    Attachments
    Volcanoes? Here? Vignette
    Objectives
    Instructional Activities
    Assessment
    Closing Commentary
    The Learning Question
    The Instruction Question
    The Assessment Question
    The Alignment Question
    Closing Questions
    Attachments
    Report Writing Vignette
    Objectives
    Instructional Activities
    Assessment
    Closing Commentary
    The Learning Question
    The Instruction Question
    The Assessment Question
    The Alignment Question
    Closing Questions
    Attachments
    Addressing Long-Standing Problems in Classroom Instruction
    Generalizations Related to the Learning Question
    Using Complex Processes to Facilitate Mastery of Simpler Objectives
    Choosing Varieties of Knowledge
    Generalizations Related to the Instruction Question
    Recognizing Links Between Knowledge Types and Cognitive Processes
    Differentiating Instructional Activities from Objectives
    Generalizations Related to the Assessment Questions
    Using Summative and Formative Assessments
    Dealing with External Assessments
    Generalizations Related to the Alignment Question
    Aligning Assessments with Objectives
    Aligning Instructional Activities with Assessments
    Aligning Instructional Activities with Objectives
    A Final Comment
    The Taxonomy in Perspective
    The Taxonomy in Relation to Alternative Frameworks
    Unidimensional Classification Systems
    Gerlach and Sullivan's Taxonomy of Commonly Taught Behaviors
    Ausubel and Robinson's Six Hierarchically Ordered Categories
    Metfessel, Michael, and Kirsner's Synonyms
    Gagne's Hierarchy of Learning
    Stahl and Murphy's Domain of Cognition
    Bruce's Integration of Knowledge with the Other Categories
    Romizowski's Analysis of Knowledge and Skills
    Biggs and Collis's SOLO
    Quellmalz's Taxonomy of Cognitive Processes
    Hauenstein's Conceptual Framework for Educational Objectives
    Reigeluth and Moore's Comparison Framework
    Multidimensional Classification Systems
    DeBlock's Three-Dimensional Framework
    DeCorte's Modification of Guilford's Structure of Intellect Model
    Ormell's Modification of the Taxonomy
    Hannah and Michaelis's Comprehensive Framework for Instructional Objectives
    Williams's Behavioral typology of Educational Objectives
    Marzano's Dimensions of Learning
    Merrill's Component Display Theory
    Haladyna (1997) and Williams and Haladyna's (1982) Typology for Higher-Level Test Items
    Similarities of the Revision's Changes to the 19 Alternative Frameworks
    Empirical Studies of the Structure of the Taxonomy
    Studies of the Cumulative Hierarchy Issue
    A Weak Empirical Approach to Checking for a Cumulative Hierarchy
    A Stronger Empirical Approach to Checking for a Cumulative Hierarchy
    A Meta-Analysis of the Available Intercorrelational Data Among Categories
    The Ordering of the Evaluation (Evaluate) and Synthesis (Create) Categories
    Evidence from Structural Linear Equation Modeling Studies
    In Conclusion
    Unsolved Problems
    Relationships Among Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment
    Curriculum Concerns
    Instruction Concerns
    Assessment Concerns
    Usefulness of the Framework to Students
    Relationship to a Theory of Learning and Cognition
    Relationships Among the Domains
    In Closing
    Appendixes
    Summary of Changes from the Original Framework
    Four Changes in Emphasis
    Four Changes in Terminology
    Four Changes in Structure
    The Inclusion of Understanding and the Omission of Problem Solving and Critical Thinking
    Condensed Version of the Original Taxonomy of Education Objectives: Cognitive Domain
    Knowledge
    Intellectual Abilities and Skills
    Data Used in the Meta-Analysis in Chapter 16
    References
    Credits
    Index

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